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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 – Socialization.docx
Chapter 3 – Socialization.docx

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University of British Columbia
SOCI 100

Chapter 3 – Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity Socialization – lifelong social experiences by which people develop their human potential and learn culture Personality – a person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling; taking in surroundings Human Development: Nature and Nurture • Biological Science: nature – Darwin, behaviour was “instinctive” • Social Sciences: nurture – Watson, behaviourism – “learned” Social Isolation • Research with monkeys: Harry and Margaret Harlow; isolation disturbed development • Studies of isolated children: Anna, permanent damage, but shows improvement; Genie Understanding Socialization Sigmund Freud’s Elements of Personality • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) – theory of psychoanalysis • Basic Human Needs – 2 basic needs or drives that are present as birth; unconscious level o Bonding – “life instinct” or eros o Death-instinct or thanatos • Model of Personality – id, ego, superego o Id – human being’s basic drives, unconscious, demand immediate satisfaction o Ego – person’s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society  Distict existence; can’t have everything o Superego – cultural values and norms internalized by an individual  Operates as conscience, why we cannot have everything we want • Id and superego remain in conflict, ego manages opposing forces o Conflicts not resolved during childhood, personality disorder later on • Culture – superego – represses selfish demands o Sublimation – compromise self and society, socially acceptable behaviour  E.g. Marriage – satisfaction of sexual urges; playing sports – aggression Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget (1896-1980) – human cognition – how people think and understand • Sensorimotor stage – level of human development at which individuals experience the world through their senses o Infants touching, tasting, smelling, looking, listening • Preoperational stage – 2 years old, at which individuals first use language and other symbols o Imagination, attach meanings to specific experiences and objects o Lack abstract concepts – can’t judge size, weight, volume • Concrete operational stage – 7-11 years old, at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings, how and why things happen o Attach more than one symbol to event or object • Formal operational stage – at which individuals think abstractly and critically o Age 12, reason in abstract thought, understand metaphors Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development (1981) • Moral reasoning – how people come to judge situations as right or wrong • Preconventional – young kids experience the world in terms of pain and pleasure (sensorimotor) • Conventional – teens, pleases others, conforms to cultural norms, aware of not just action but also intention (formal operational stage) • Postconventional – people move beyond their society’s norms to consider abstract ethical principles (liberty, justice, freedom); what is lawful may not be right Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Gender and Moral Development (1982) • Justice perspective – boys, relying on formal rules to define right or wrong • Care and responsibility perspective – judging situation with an eye toward personal relationships and loyalties Charles Horton Cooley’s Theory of the Looking­Glass Self • Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929) – symbolic interactional tradition • Looking-glass self – self-image based on how we think others see us o Others are a mirror in which we see ourselves George Herbert Mead’s Theory of the Social Self • George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) – developed a sociological theory of social behaviourism to explain how social experience develops an individual’s personality • Self – part of an individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image o Product of social experience • Self develops only with social experience – not part of the body, doesn’t exist at birth o Reject personality guided by biological drives • Social experience is the exchange of symbols – fin meaning in action, intentions • Understanding intention requires imagining a situation from the other’s point of view o How others would respond to us before we act • Taking the role of the other, we become self-aware o Self has 2 parts: the subject “I” (active, spontaneous), object “me” (the way we imagine others see us) o We initiate action (I), we evaluate the action based on how others respond to us (me) • Imitation – mimic behaviour of other people, develop self by learning to take role of the other • Play – learn to use language and other symbols • Significant others – people such as parents, who have special importance for socialization • Games – take the roles of several others at once; team sports, 7 years old • Generalized other – widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves Agents of Socialization Family • Nurture in Early Childhood – family teaches children skills, values, beliefs • Learn from the type of environment adults create – strong/weak, smart/stupid, loved/tolerated • Race, Ethnicity, Class – family gives social identity; high or low social position o Class position of parents – money parents have to spend, what they expect from them • Melvin Kohn (1997) – people of lower social standing usually have limited education and hold jobs that involve performing routine tasks –> obedience o Well-off parents, more schooling, jobs demand imagination and creativity o Parents act in ways that encourage their children to follow in their footsteps • Cultural capital – enrichment activities, advances learning and creates a sense of confidence in these children that they will be successful throughout their lives The School • Enlarges children’s social world to include people with backgrounds different from their own o Understand race and social position, cluster in playgroups of class, race, gender • Gender – socializing children into gender roles o Boys – physical, more aggressive; econ, engineering, CompSci, natural sciences o Girls – help with chores, quieter, better behaved; Arts, humanities, social sciences o Women entering traditionally male-dominated professions (medicine, law) – gender stratification in choice of specialty and income
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