Textbook Notes (359,272)
Canada (156,142)
Sociology (145)
SOCI 100 (54)
A L L (16)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 – Socialization.docx
Chapter 3 – Socialization.docx
Premium

9 Pages
81 Views
Unlock Document

School
University of British Columbia
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 100
Professor
A L L
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 3 – Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity Socialization – lifelong social experiences by which people develop their human potential and learn culture Personality – a person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling; taking in surroundings Human Development: Nature and Nurture • Biological Science: nature – Darwin, behaviour was “instinctive” • Social Sciences: nurture – Watson, behaviourism – “learned” Social Isolation • Research with monkeys: Harry and Margaret Harlow; isolation disturbed development • Studies of isolated children: Anna, permanent damage, but shows improvement; Genie Understanding Socialization Sigmund Freud’s Elements of Personality • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) – theory of psychoanalysis • Basic Human Needs – 2 basic needs or drives that are present as birth; unconscious level o Bonding – “life instinct” or eros o Death-instinct or thanatos • Model of Personality – id, ego, superego o Id – human being’s basic drives, unconscious, demand immediate satisfaction o Ego – person’s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society  Distict existence; can’t have everything o Superego – cultural values and norms internalized by an individual  Operates as conscience, why we cannot have everything we want • Id and superego remain in conflict, ego manages opposing forces o Conflicts not resolved during childhood, personality disorder later on • Culture – superego – represses selfish demands o Sublimation – compromise self and society, socially acceptable behaviour  E.g. Marriage – satisfaction of sexual urges; playing sports – aggression Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget (1896-1980) – human cognition – how people think and understand • Sensorimotor stage – level of human development at which individuals experience the world through their senses o Infants touching, tasting, smelling, looking, listening • Preoperational stage – 2 years old, at which individuals first use language and other symbols o Imagination, attach meanings to specific experiences and objects o Lack abstract concepts – can’t judge size, weight, volume • Concrete operational stage – 7-11 years old, at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings, how and why things happen o Attach more than one symbol to event or object • Formal operational stage – at which individuals think abstractly and critically o Age 12, reason in abstract thought, understand metaphors Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development (1981) • Moral reasoning – how people come to judge situations as right or wrong • Preconventional – young kids experience the world in terms of pain and pleasure (sensorimotor) • Conventional – teens, pleases others, conforms to cultural norms, aware of not just action but also intention (formal operational stage) • Postconventional – people move beyond their society’s norms to consider abstract ethical principles (liberty, justice, freedom); what is lawful may not be right Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Gender and Moral Development (1982) • Justice perspective – boys, relying on formal rules to define right or wrong • Care and responsibility perspective – judging situation with an eye toward personal relationships and loyalties Charles Horton Cooley’s Theory of the Looking­Glass Self • Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929) – symbolic interactional tradition • Looking-glass self – self-image based on how we think others see us o Others are a mirror in which we see ourselves George Herbert Mead’s Theory of the Social Self • George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) – developed a sociological theory of social behaviourism to explain how social experience develops an individual’s personality • Self – part of an individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image o Product of social experience • Self develops only with social experience – not part of the body, doesn’t exist at birth o Reject personality guided by biological drives • Social experience is the exchange of symbols – fin meaning in action, intentions • Understanding intention requires imagining a situation from the other’s point of view o How others would respond to us before we act • Taking the role of the other, we become self-aware o Self has 2 parts: the subject “I” (active, spontaneous), object “me” (the way we imagine others see us) o We initiate action (I), we evaluate the action based on how others respond to us (me) • Imitation – mimic behaviour of other people, develop self by learning to take role of the other • Play – learn to use language and other symbols • Significant others – people such as parents, who have special importance for socialization • Games – take the roles of several others at once; team sports, 7 years old • Generalized other – widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves Agents of Socialization Family • Nurture in Early Childhood – family teaches children skills, values, beliefs • Learn from the type of environment adults create – strong/weak, smart/stupid, loved/tolerated • Race, Ethnicity, Class – family gives social identity; high or low social position o Class position of parents – money parents have to spend, what they expect from them • Melvin Kohn (1997) – people of lower social standing usually have limited education and hold jobs that involve performing routine tasks –> obedience o Well-off parents, more schooling, jobs demand imagination and creativity o Parents act in ways that encourage their children to follow in their footsteps • Cultural capital – enrichment activities, advances learning and creates a sense of confidence in these children that they will be successful throughout their lives The School • Enlarges children’s social world to include people with backgrounds different from their own o Understand race and social position, cluster in playgroups of class, race, gender • Gender – socializing children into gender roles o Boys – physical, more aggressive; econ, engineering, CompSci, natural sciences o Girls – help with chores, quieter, better behaved; Arts, humanities, social sciences o Women entering traditionally male-dominated professions (medicine, law) – gender stratification in choice of specialty and income
More Less

Related notes for SOCI 100

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.

Submit