Textbook Notes (362,734)
Canada (158,032)
Sociology (149)
SOCI 100 (54)
A L L (16)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 – Groups and Organizations.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of British Columbia
SOCI 100

Chapter 5 – Groups and Organizations • Formal organizations – operation of huge corporations, other bureaucracies Social groups • Social groups – the clusters of people with whom we interact in our daily lives o Two or more people who identify with and interact with one another o Shared experiences, loyalties, interests o Members think of themselves as “we” • Category – status in common (e.g. ethnicity or occupation) • Crowd – non-interacting group (e.g. audience) Primary and Secondary Group • Two types: based on members’ degree of genuine personal concern for one another • Charles Horton Cooley – primary group – a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships o Spend a lot of time together, engage in wide range of activities, know one another well o Show real concern for one another o First groups we experience in life – family, friends o Unique, irreplaceable o Bound to others by emotion and loyalty o Personal orientation; who they are in terms of family ties or personal qualities • Secondary group – large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity o Weak emotional ties, little personal knowledge of one another o Many exist for only a short time, beginning and ending without particular significance o Include many more people than primary o Sometimes passage of time transforms a group from secondary to primary o Goal orientation; what they can do for each other o Tend to “keep score”, what we give other, receive in return o Usually remain formal and polite Group Leadership 2 leadership Roles • Instrumental leadership – group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks o Make plans, give orders, get things done o Formal, secondary relationships with other members o Enjoy more respect from members • Expressive leadership – group leadership that focuses on the group’s well-being o Promote well-being of members, minimizing tension and conflict among members o Build more personal, primary ties o Sympathy, keep group united, lighten serious moments with humour o Receive more personal affection 3 Leadership Styles • Authoritarian leadership – instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision making, demands that group members obey orders o Win little affection; fast-acting in a crisis • Democratic leadership – more expressive, include everyone in decision-making process o Less successful in crisis situation; draw on ideas of all members to develop a creative solutions to problems • Laissez-faire leadership – function more or less on its own (“leave it be”) o Least effective in promoting group goals • Patriarchal societies (19 -20 century) – authoritarian leadership on men o Breakwinners, heads – men have primary responsibility for bringing in family income, made major decisions, disciplined children o Women – democratic leadership role, lend family members emotional support and maintain peaceful family relationships Group conformity • “fitting in” – provides secure feeling of belonging; at the extreme, unpleasant, even dangerous • Solomon Asch (1952) – line experiment; pressure remaining person; 1/3 of subjects chose to conform by answering incorrectly o Many of us are willing to compromise our own judgement to avoid discomfort of being different, even from people we do not know • Stanley Milgram – electric shock experiment; how punishment affects learning o Teacher, learner, researcher in the room  26/40 (almost two-thirds) went all the way to 450 volts o How readily people obeyed authority figures o 1964 – can ordinary people pressure strangers?  3 teachers (2 accomplices) suggest shock level when learner made an error  Apply 3 to 4 times higher voltage than acting alone o Likely to follow directions of legitimate authority figures and ordinary individuals • Irving Janis (1972, 1989) – “Groupthink” – group members often seek agreement that closes off other points of view o Groupthink – the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue o E.g. American invasion of the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in 1961  Felt guilty; group discouraged anyone from challenging “nonsense” Reference Groups  • Reference group – a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions • Can be primary or secondary; our need to conform shows how others’ attitudes affect us • Conforming to groups we don’t belong to: strategy to win acceptance, anticipatory socialization • Samuel Stouffer’s Research (1949) – classic study of reference groups during WWII o Rate chances of promotion in army unit o Soldiers in units with low promotion rates: more positive about chances to move ahead o We don’t make judgements about ourselves in isolation, don’t compare ourselves with just anyone o Regardless of our situation in absolute terms, we form a subjective sense of our well-being by looking at ourselves relative to specific reference groups In­Groups and Out­Groups • Favour one group over other: political outlook, social prestige, manner of dress • Make similar positive and negative evaluations of members of other groups • In-group – social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty • Out-group – social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition o We have valued traits that they lack • Tensions sharpen groups’ boundaries, clearer social identity • Power – out-group: lower-status, unfair negative views Group size  • ~6 enter a room, joins in a single conversation • Group divides into clusters, divides as party grows • Increasing number of people boosts number of relationships much more rapidly; every new individual can interact with everyone already there • 7 people – 21 open channels to connect; usually divides into smaller conversation groups • Georg Simmel (1950): Dyad – a social group with 2 members o Typically more intense than larger groups because neither member must share other’s attention with anyone else o Unstable; both must work to keep relationship going; either withdraw, collapses • Triad – social group with 3 members o One member can act as mediator if relations become strained o 3 people+ more stable, capable of withstanding loss of members; reduce intense interaction; based less on personal attachments, more on formal rules, regulations Social diversity: Race, Class, and Gender Peter Blau: 3 ways in which social diversity influences intergroup contact • 1) Large groups turn inward o Larger the group, more likely members concentrate relationships among themselves o Promote social diversity -> unintended effect of promoting separatism • 2) Heterogeneous groups turn outward o Immigrants settle in major cities • 3) Physical boundaries create social boundaries o Physically segregated from others -> members less likely to interact with other people Networks • Network – web of weak social ties, great distances, large numbers of people, powerful resource • Occasional contact, lack sense of boundaries an belonging • Group: circle of friends; network:: social web • Know of, who know of us, but interact rarely, if at all • Network ties give us the sense that we live in a ‘small world’ • Stanley Milgram – passing letters; “six degrees of separation” • Women’s ties – more relatives, more women • Men’s ties – more co-workers, more men Formal organizations • Formal organizations – large secondary groups organized to achieve their goals efficiently o E.g. corporations, government agencies – impersonality, formally planned atmospheres o Collecting taxes, delivering mail, schooling children Types of Formal Organizations Amitai Etzoini (1975) – 3 types of formal organizations – reasons people participate in them • Utilitarian Organizations – pays people for their efforts o E.g. business, government agency, school system – individual choice • Normative Organizations – voluntary associations o Morally worthwhile goals, community service, political parties, religious organizations • Coercive Organizations – involuntary memberships o Forced to join as a form of punishment (prisons) or treatment (psychiatric hospital) o Special physical features: locked doors, barred windows, supervised o Isolate people for period of time to radically change attitudes and behaviour Origins of Formal Organization • 2 limitations: lacked the technology to
More Less

Related notes for SOCI 100

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.