Chapter 2: Independent Questions
I. Psychoanalytic Theories
A. Freud’s Psychosexual Theory – See lecture notes
B. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory (optional reading – not on the midterm)
C. Evaluation of Psychoanalytic Theories
1. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of psychoanalytic theories. There are a couple of
points mentioned that pertain to Erikson’s theory only – you don’t need to know this since
we are focusing on psychoanalytic theories in general and Freud’s theory in particular.
D. The Humanistic Alternative
2. Take notes on this entire section including Figure 2.1.
II. Learning Theories
3. Take notes on the first paragraph under the heading “Learning Theories”.
A. Pavlov’s classical Conditioning
4. (a) Why is classical conditioning of interest in the study of development?
(b)Why is classical conditioning especially important in infancy?
B. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning – See lecture notes
C. Evaluation of Learning Theories
5. (a) Identify the strengths and weakness of learning theories.
(b)You need to know all the information in Table 2.4.
III. Cognitive Theories
A. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory – See lecture notes
B. Information-Processing Theory – See lecture notes
C. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory – See lecture notes
D. Bandura’s Social-Cognitive Theory - See lecture notes
E. Evaluation of Cognitive Theories
6. (a) Read this section and identify the specific strengths and weaknesses presented for EACH
of the four cognitive theories (Piaget, Information-Processing, Vygotsky, and Bandura). (b) You need to know all the information in Table 2.6.
IV. Biological and Evolutionary Theories
7. Take notes on the two introductory paragraphs for this section.
8. Define the following terms: (a) chromosomes, (b) DNA, (c) genes, (d) genome
B. Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Patterns of Inheritance (optional reading – not on the midterm)
9. Define the following terms: (a) epigenome, (b) gene expression, (c) gene silencing
10. Summarize the research findings from the field of Epigenetics presented in the t