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Chapter 6

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SOCI 200
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Ch 6 later fertility = higher rates of miscarriage/ difficult conceiving relationship btw child and parent are “durable” (both legally and culturally) -birth of first child estimated 75% couples experience decrease in feelings of love -but marriages with children are more stable that w/o -but they do encounter more conflict/ less love -actualy date and time of child’s birth = transition point complete transition is from deciding on having child,conception, birth, adaptation etc typical reasons for wanting a child: conformity the “norm” for adults to have -not truly recognized as adult until parental role in place missing out on life experience “miss out” on life by not having a child.; having children = have a family Desire for social capital  the network of relationships one can access = social capital ; a child gives parents access to those networks restricted to families with children; also revived long- dormant relationships with relatives Old age security assurance that someone will take care of you when old; in most developed countries this reason is not viable. entertainment Biological imperatives: cannot explain variability in fertility Desired/intended fertility: -ask: how many children do you intend to have? -desired fertility > actual fertility -gap is greatest in countries with low fertility rates -attitudinal measure varies with age and time (younger couple more inclined to not want children) voluntary childlessness: do not want children involuntary childlessness: cannot have children -many trying for children for 12months+ may change their desired fertility to no children (voluntary childlessness) so it’s hard to measure real reason. -some due to delayed fertility (more difficulty conceiving for women over age of 30; and low sperm counts for men) Replacement level fertility : fertility needed to replace each parent/reproduction-age offspring -need slightly higher than 2 children because not all children make it to reporductio-age -levels vary in each country based on child mortality rates. Population decline: when people die >people born - Results in shrinking labour force and shrinking of consumers -desired family size = poor predictor of actual family size. -having a secure job /job with advancement opportunities important to those wanting children Fertility measured only among women -crude birth rate(CBR): count # of live births to women in a year -drawback: does not take into account age of the women (have many more years for childbirth or have almost completed their fertility) -total fertility rate (TFR): # of children per women we expect in Canada - estimation based on 1) maintain cohort rate of fertility for past yr 2) live to end of fertility -an average -Age specific fertility rates: # of children born to women in given year for each age group -usually ages grouped in 5 yr increments (i.e 20-24) History of fertility in Canada: -baby boom: 1941-1961 -TFR starts to decline in 1961, after post-war baby boom -w/o baby boom , there is a consistent decline in fertility -downward trend = demographic transition from agrarian economy(favor large families) to an urban-industrial economy(favor small families) -older age groups ( 30-34/ 35-39) showing increases in fertility *leptokurtic: a very peaked distribution  expected of w/ strong life course norms regarding appropriate time for children *pltykurtic: a spred out curve  expected w/ timing norms weakened Goode(1963) : claims the idea of a conjugal family: -a urbanize/industrializing world = children are economic liabilities decrease in # of children = increase time couple spend in marital roles vs parental Attempts to explain delayed fertility in women: -changing time norms -women’s participation in labour force ( doubled from 1970 – 2000) -prolonging of education ( leads to delay in marriage and child birth ; also entering labour force later) -economic wellbeing  Mitchell/gray suggest people who want children may delay fertility until they have reached economic wellbeing -have a sense of financial stability first Current fertility in Canada: -somewhat increasing -but comparing data: Canada is producing fewer children although we have larger population -increasing # of children are born to cohabiting couples/single , never married females -immigration is primary population growth source -to hit zero population growth by 2030 and then begin to decline after wards. Ecological: declining population = smaller footprint economical: economic growth of goods and services only if nation is growing or convince more consumers to buy infertility: -increases for both men/women as age increases -miscarriage risk increases exponentially w/ age ( from 50/1000 in 20’s to 450/1000 after age 45) -women in late 30’s almost triple risk of miscarriage vs 20 yr old. -popular speculations : females infertile because of ovulation disorders, fallopian tube blockages, or pelvic inflammatory disease For males: tight fitting briefs or water bottles with synthetic estrogens cause low sperm count Transition to parenthood: -most responsible roles - defined by informal (expected to nurture child , etc) and formal ( laws against parental abandonment, child neglect, abuse) social norms Pregnancy: -couples who initiate sex with idea of having child  more prepared throughout other phases of transition “planners” -Couple who adopt” whatever happens” attitude are less prepared (synonymous to the “sliders” in cohabitation) “sliders” -each trimester is roughly 3 months in duration; gestation is usually longer than 9 months -first trimester = “morning sickness”(can be longer) ; anxiety (most likely time for miscarriage) -2 : most enjoyable; weight and balance still okay; ultrasounds; some diagnostic treatements suggested (especially for women over age of 35) 3 : booking hospital room, preparing child’s room, prenatal classes, primiparous: first time mothers first birth/decline in marriage: -baby can be taken home after a few days of birth -in past, adult siblings with large families exposed to infant care (anticipatory socialization for parenthood) -feeney: most disliked about being 1 time parents : lack of sleep and not knowing what to do most liked : baby smiling and simply having the baby Recap*Marital satisfaction is a U-shaped curve - we are interested in know about the first 2 stages of curve : the decline of marital satisfaction from wedding day to birth of first child. -can be argued that married couples shift view of partner from romantic to realistic 4 Difficulties in transition to parenthood for mother: 1) lack of support for lifestyle other than motherhood 2) shift in emphasis of marital role to mother role 3) abruptness of transition 4) lack of guidelines and support for parenthood belsky and rovine (1990) -3 yr study following married couples from preg to 3 years post partum -both husbands and wives showed declines in measures of marriage -wives decline in all four measures ( decreased love, increased conflict, less effort to maintain relationship, and more ambivalence abt marriage) -husbands report decline in all areas except conflict -linear trends (not getting better) Many couples : most egalitarian (define!) roles in intimate relationships found in cohabitation -addition of marital roles makes relationship less egalitarian. -marital roles before children also egalitarian. -after birth of child, roles may start to become more gendered division of labour and less egalitarian CH7 Children as economic asset  economic liability: 1) child protection legislation passage (curb exploitation of children) 2) increased value in education ; legislation for all children to attend school (mandatory school made children more expensive ) majority w/ goal of parenting as bring child to adulthood. -N.A “success” is to be economically independent of parents - 2 major components of child rearing: 1) help child with social skills 2) help child to achieve academically Socrates dialog, two positions argued: 1) learning depends on experience (empiricism) 2) every human has pre-existing mental forms of knowledge (rationalism) parent-to-child unidirectional model: empiricist view is to which all effects on child flow unidirectionally from parents child-to-parent unidirectional model: effects of child temperament on parents. Bidirectional parent-child model: child could have unidirectional effects as well as when parents were receiving from child -the child influences/conditions interactions w/ parents and parents influence the child Parent – child is a dyad -its dynamic developmental nature continues as parent and child age levels of analysis: -individual (parent or child) -dyad (mother-son;mother-daughter; father-daughter; father-son) -group ( family: parents + children) -Has factions or coalitions (two against one) forming Nature-nurture debate: whether child outcomes are genetic/biological cause or due to social experience/exposure Ontogenic development Child gains voluntary control of external anal sphincter abt 18mths of age. -restricts child ability to do certain task at acertain age-specific, species-specific stages. Sociogenic development: Belief that developmental/maturational outcomes can be created through experience and socialization Two other dimensions distinguishing theories of development: 1) time frame:some view development process as occurring mainly in childhood childhood means increasing strength,intellectual powers, lifespan theories argue stasis declinedeath 2) approaches to stages in development:some theories follow invariant ordering /lockstep progression in that a stage must be completed successfully in order to move on to next Psychoanalytic theories:  is within medicine and orientated toward pathology and treatment; treatment driven unit of analysis: individual -along w/ invariant developmental stages, idea that each stage is marked by certain developmental adjustments (must be met or risk detrimental future development) -Freud’s stages in psychosexual development are oral stage, anal stage, phallic, latency and genital stages. Focus on childhood -Erikson extended Freuds study to adulthood and old age -saw developmental stages as deep conflicts to be resolved to move on -conflicts include: trust-mistrust; autonomy-doubt; initiative-guilt; industry-inferiority; identity-role confusion;intimacy-isolation; generativity-stagnation; integrity-despair Psychological theories:  study of mental processes; curiosity driven Piaget’s focus was on child development Kohlberg viewed moral development as lifelong progression -study of development becoming less focused on childhood more on lifespan view *see table 7.3 pg 178 for piaget’s model Sociological theories: unit of analysis: focus on parent-child dyad, family or larger social units Determinants of development is more social (nurture) vs ontogenic (nature) 1) G.H Mead(1934) : focused on social mechs that create understanding of society -two stages of development for child to be competent at performing social roles in society: a) play stage: learning how to take on and play social role -child learns of range of expected/approved behaviors and unacceptable/unsanctioned ones -chance for child to learn that a role has social rules and understand the role b) game stage: child learns that several roles can be played if actor knows the rules -children learn that roles are made within a larger system of norms and expectations and rules can change over time 2) Bronfenbrenner (1979) : social and ecological theoretical model of development -argues smallest unit to analyze is the dyad -child does not develop alone but always in interaction with another human. -argues the child’s interaction moves outward and competence increases with each level 3)Bowlby (1953): initiates attachment theory: involves social relationship and the necessity to human development/wellbeing -child has an act similar to imprinting to one specific , significant caregiver: the mother -theory argues human infants need to form secure, affective attachment to one significant caregiver. -observable /measurable by 6mths of age. -ainsworth, et al developed 3 attachment style + main and solon added a fourth: -secure: firmly attached to caregiver, explores w/ checking back for them -anxious-resistant: bothered by caregiver absence, angry with caregiver on return -anxious-avoidant: treats stranger/caregiver similarly avoids caregiver on return -disorganized: lacks coherent pattern of response to caregiver leaving and to stranger -criticism to attachment theory: fails to control child temperament; children showing independence earlier may be just coded as less attached; fail to account for family background factors(ethnicity, income, social class) after 1970s, women more likely to return to work previously: studies showed no evidence that daycare harmful to mother-child bond now: Belsky (1988) : Age Hrs of daycare result 1 yr 20+ Higher risk of developmental difficulties at later age Under 3 20+ Significantly more like to have compliance problems 1 yr 10+ Higher risk to develop[ insecure attachment + mother insensitive to relationship w/ child. Parenting: -constrained under laws for neglect, failure to supervise, abandonment, use of physical force etc. -a government agency responsible for child welfare can seize children from home if parents are not adequately caring for/protecting child -controlled y informal social norms In infant years, parents have control over environment, rewards,punishment, playmates, (religious, cultural, moral values) -this early socialization forms child’s world view, morals and identity child outcomes: child compliance: child’s response to directions from responsible adults -essential in early childhood(age 0-4) before child can reason /conceptualize and for own’s safety -as age, compliance replaced w/ autonomy and creativity. Child achievement: social (social skills, respect, have friends, ; academic (get good grades, praise fro adults, etc) **belsky process model of parenting pg 186 Vs static categorizations (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, uninvolved) is it recognizes bidirectionality of parent-child influence; -parenting effects are product of parent’s marriage and work interacting with child’s temperament Disciplining: -major finding: heightened aggression in child who have been spanked -studies for spanking cannot use experimental design - use of correlational design: but does not allow to distinguish btw whether aggressive children simply more likely to produce behaviours resulting in spanking or the spanking make
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