Gives the interviewee more freedom to direct the ow of the conversation. Researchers may explore unanticipated issues that may arise in the course of the interview. Three research methods centred on qualitative interviewing: In-depth interviews: signify research designs where qualitative interviewing is the primary means of data gathering. Focus groups: when a number of people are brought and interviewed together. Oral history: focuses on recollections of the past. Qualitative interview: allows the researcher to pursue issues in depth and gives the respondent more freedom to direct the ow of conversation. Involves asking open-ended questions, listening/recording, following up with relevant questions. Researcher usually has a general plan but not a standardized set of questions to follow. [kvale] seven stages in a complete interviewing process. Designing: lay out the process, including ethical concerns. Transcribing: creating written text of the interviews. Analyzing: determining the meaning of gathered materials. Verifying: checking the reliability and validity of the materials.