Many issues are connected and interlocking, ex: the Live in Caregiver Program-
-the convergence of neoconoliamlism, privatization, patriarchy, white middle class feminist interests
-no easy solution
-class, sexuality, ethnicity, race, age, and gender are overlapping
-foreign gay people who come to Canada can be discriminated in both groups, the queer group and in
their ethnic group.
-intersectionality can be good because you don’t have an opinion before you start your research
-race is a political concept to divide people
Week4, with the star: read the essay before class
-a critical response paper includes a little review, then look at the article, see what the main arguments
are and reflect on the arguments from your own analysis and interpretation. Support? Against?
Anything to add?
-feminism is a way of understanding your identity, your relationships with others, how institutionally our
world is shaped
-feminism gives us tools to analyze these things
3 core principles of Feminism:
-Biological sex: is not destiny. Biological attributes are not fixed. They are learned!
-Personal is political: if you want to change the person, you have to change the political. Men are
given the benefit
What do we mean by dualisms?
- pairs of opposing concepts, binary oppositions
-dichotomy: the social expression of masculinity and femininity related to physical underpinnings
-gender is how we transform ourselves
-pg127: biology, medicine and other elements of social sciences have opposed feminism and it’s hard for
women’s studies to be taken seriously in the social sciences. Some feminists screwed themselves by just
putting biology aside. Even in science, there’s an influence as what we see as feminine and masculine.
-when you ask if someone’s male or female, you’re asking what the meaning of gender means.
-everyone has been divided into dualisms
-butler and ross agree there is a combination that makes us who we are
-the mind can think in a different way than the body moves. You look in the mirror and don’t feel like
the mind and body fit together
-our minds have different ideas and our bodies and minds need to be linked
Today’s Key Points:
1) What do we mean by the idea of dualism? Not simply the construction of people, how you evaluate
the binary, what lies behind the binary of men and women. Fixing the categories. Dividing the world into
opposites and basing this division on biology(predetermined quality)
How did the athletes life fall apart? Did she fight against what happened?
What are the problems with dualism according to Val Plumwood
-how has Judith Butler tried to give us a non-dualistic account of the body -Is what ways is “matter” already gendered
-How does Elizabeth Grosz differ?
Pre-class notes: September 19
Raewyn Connell’s work on masculinity:
Multiple Masculinities: no one pattern of masculinity that’s found everywhere. More than one type of
masculinity can be found in a given cultural setting.
Hierarchy of Masculinities: there are definite relationships between types of masculinities. Some are
honoured, some are dishonoured (ex: homosexual masculinity in western culture)
Hegemonic Masculinity: the form of masculinity that is culturally dominant in a given setting.
“Hegemonic” signifies a position of cultural authority and leadership. This is the most common form of
masculinity. Hegemonic masculinity is very visible. It is the expression of the privilege men have over
Active Construction of Masculinities: masculinities don’t exist prior to social behaviour, they come into
existence as people act. We “do gender” in everyday life.
Dynamics of Masculinities: masculinities are able to change. Masculine identities are not fixed but are
Guide to Intersex and Trans
Intersex people naturally do not fit into societies definitions of male or female. They develop primary or
secondary sex characteristics. Many are mutilated in infancy and early childhood by doctors to make
their sex characteristics conform. These people are relatively common, but society has shut them out.
Trans people break away from one of societies expectations around sex and gender.
Transsexual people perceive themselves as members of gender/sex that is different from the one they
were assigned at birth. Many of these people pursue hormone or surgical interventions to make life
Transgender is used in many different ways. People use it to describe a gender outside of man/woman.
Some use it to describe the condition of having no gender or multiple gender.
Class Notes: September 19
It’s All About Gender, Honey”
Masculinity, Patriarchy and the Gender Binary
Gender: a social pattern, is very unstable; geographically, and in cultures, both a product and a producer
of history, how social practices are organized.
Masculinity by Raewyn Connel:
-masculinity is a novel product in modern western society
-formed out of