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AHSS*1030 (2)

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University of Guelph - Humber
Thomas Foard

CHAPTER ONE INTRO TO THE FIELD OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOURTHE FIELD OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUROrganizational behaviourstudy of what people think feel and do in and around organizations how organizations interact with their external environmentOrganizationsgroups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose They are collective entities that consist of human beings and these people interact with each other in an organized wayEmerged as a distinct field in the 1940sDeals with building a high performance team motivating coworkers handling workplace conflicts and working effectivelyPERSEPECTIVES OF ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESSOrganizational effectivenessconsidered the ultimate dependent variable in organizational behaviour try to improve effectivenessGoal attainment is a poor way of viewing effectivenessComposite of four perspectives open systems organizational learning high performance work practices and stakeholdersOpen Systems PerspectiveOpen systemsorganizations depend on the external environment for resources affect that environment through their output and consist of internal subsystems that transform inputs into outputsOpen describes a permeable relationship whereas closed systems operate without dependence on or interaction with an external environmentSome environmental resources are transformed into outputs that are exported to the external environment ex raw materials whereas other resources become subsystems in the transformation process ex EquipmentSubsystems are organized interdependently so they interact with each ot her to transform inputs into outputsOpen systems are most effective when they maintain a good fit with the external environment by anticipating change and reconfiguring their subsystems to become more consistent with their environmentOrganizational efficiency productivityratio or inputs to outcomes1More adaptive and innovative transformation processes prove to better productivityCoordination is vital in the relationships of an organization as challenges are amplified as organizations growOrganizational Learning PerspectiveOrganizational learning perspective knowledge managementviews knowledge as the main driver of competitive advantage focuses on the capacity to acquire share use and store valuable informationKnowledge acquisitionextracting information and ideas from the external environment as well as through insightKnowledge sharingdistributing knowledge to others across the organizationKnowledge usethe competitive advantage of knowledge comes from applying it in ways that add value to the organization and its stakeholdersKnowledge storageany means by which knowledge is held for later retrievalAbsorptive capacitythe ability to recognize the value of new information assimilate it and use it for valueadded activities prerequisite for acquiring sharing and using new knowledgeIntellectual capacitya companys stock of knowledge including human capita structural capital and relationship capitalHuman capitalthe stock of knowledge skills and abilities among employees that provides economic value to the organizationHuge risk when knowledge is the main competitive advantage for an organization as when people leave so does their knowledgeStructural capitalknowledge embedded in organizations systems and structuresIntellectual capitalincludes relationship capital value derived from an organizations relationships with customers suppliers and others who provide added mutual value for the organizationCorporate leaders are the keepers of organizational memoryIn order to retain intellectual capital practices include systematically transferring knowledge to other employees in order to change intellectual into structural capital 2
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