Chapter 13 – Schools
- Ascribed statuses - statuses assigned to individuals because of certain traits beyond their control. Social statuses assigned to
- Ascribed status include -family structure, socio economic status, sex, race etc.
- Social mobility - process by which individuals and families move up an economic or status hierarchy.
- Careers: Linking School and Work
- Word 'Career' means racecourse and road for cars. To say __ have a career, means they are rapidly moving towards a goal
and in competition with others
- PPL with different educational credentials enter at different job and income levels.
- Modern professions (medicine and law) considered higher education, with ability to control career entries, reward systems,
conditions of work.
- TODAY, many careers are still gendered, ambitious women have glass ceilings.
- Employers continue to prefer ppl from specific ethnic or racial groups or certain elite backgrounds.
- But, all employers want someone highly educated over less educated.
- 4 major theories to understand young adult's transition from school into labour force :
- Segmented labour market theory - notes the labour market is stratified, entry and upward mobility are difficult for ppl
with only high school education.
- Human capital theory - attributes the problems of new labour force entrants to deficiencies in their training that lessen
their value to the hiring organization
- Signaling theory - employer's use of signs to judge the potential worth and trainability of a young employee
- Network theory - describes the importance of social networks and social capital in gaining employment based on 'word' of
a friend or relative, who vouches for the quality of potential employee.
- Institutional linkages on 3 expectations about flow of labour - dependable supply, dependable skills, dependable quality.
- What's needed is that high school counsellors engage more as gate keepers - must act vigoriously to discourage students
whose college plans are inappropriate, to avoid unpleasant realities
- Careers tie together life events, and also tie together institutional activities
- Primary and secondary labour exists everywhere
- Primary labour market - consists of jobs that offer good wages, chances to get ahead, job security (teacher, lawyer)
- Secondary (marginal) labour market - consists of jobs that pay low wages, little chance to get ahead, little job security
(taxi driver, secretary)
- ppl w/ different social traits, backgrounds, skills are in diff makers
Class: Social Mobility and Educational Inequality
- this "race for rewards" happens according to social inequality
- Social class born into, affects educational ambitions and pursuits
- Growth of higher ed. in developed societies = stay longer in school = higher education
- Canada is developed therefore all citizens, all race ethnicity or class, have same right to take part in comm. activities and
- BUT, less advantaged children aren't able to handle financial debt to complete post sec-ed
Education and Gender
- Uni and colleges opened many social and economic opportunities for females in CAN.
- Before confederation, females had other house duties - keeping em away from school
- Mount allison uni in New Brunswick enrolled first female students
- Earlier years, women pushed to take general art degrees or domestic science courses and prevented from studying medicine
- 50 years - closed for medicine for women
- Elsie McGill - 1st to get degree in electrical engineering from UFT 1927
- 1999-2000, Canadian women got 59% of all post sec-degrees
- Women underrepresented in engineering, applied sciences, maths
- Continue to enter, social sciences, fine arts, humanities
- Careers tend to lose prestige and pay as many women enter these jobs
- Social benefits of jobs dramatic for both genders, especially girls
- Highest levels of education in women come closest to job and income equality w/ men
- In poor ppl, highly education helps in social equality - Women likely to be illiterate in sub-saharan africa, arab states, south asia.
Education and Race
Aboriginal Issues and Education
- Aboriginal ppl were defined legally as "non citizens an wards of the state"
- 1876 - gov tried assimilation on aboriginals - control and regulate all aspects of life VIAresidential schools –
- RACIALIZATION - term for how social institutions impose racial identities on minorities
- 45 res. schools fully funded by 1894, operated from 1892-1969
Aboriginal EducationalAttainment Today
- Their education responsibility of federal gov.
- Levels of their education drastically lower than everyone else
- Urban residing aboriginals, received higher education (1981-2001) -less guys, more girls
- More ppl got high school diplomas, especially men, started going to post-sec.ed.
- Proportion of ab. males 25-34 who completed post-sec.ed increased 25%
Immigrants and Visible Minorities: Contemporary Canadian Trends
- Visible minority groups - half of toronto's pop. by 2017.
- Today, visible minorities and immigrants more educated than general can. pop.
- LARGELY due to Can's immigration policy - that have produced highly educated group of immigrant workers employment
and income indicators show that - access to higher social status and economic positions in Canada is unequal - racial
discrimination may be prevalent
Work Discrimination and Unemployment
- Foreign born visible minorities experience larger gap btwn education attainment and their occupation than other groups
- Recent immigrants feel that their educational, work credentials not recognized in Can.
- They get forced into job not their level
- 6/10 immigrants to Can. did not work in same field after their arrival
- 4 main factors affect entry level job status to immigrants - 1) thee specificity of skills required by nation's immigration
policy. 2) educational competition btwn them and native born 3) labour market structure, 4) welfare state
The Effectiveness of Schooling
- Schools contribute little to reducing inequalities
- Student's socio-economic status (measured by parental ed. job status, income) significantly influences student outcomes
- Other researches say - Curriculum development, school org., teaching methods significantly affect schools, educational
quality and student's achievements
- Research shows link btwn person's school success, socio-economic factors, non economic factors are also relevant
- 'good' schools in Ontario have principles, teachers, s