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Canada (158,177)
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FCSS*1010 (2)
Chapter 13

social problems chapter 13.docx

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University of Guelph - Humber
Lisa Mudie

Chapter 13 – Schools - Ascribed statuses - statuses assigned to individuals because of certain traits beyond their control. Social statuses assigned to people. - Ascribed status include -family structure, socio economic status, sex, race etc. - Social mobility - process by which individuals and families move up an economic or status hierarchy. - Careers: Linking School and Work - Word 'Career' means racecourse and road for cars. To say __ have a career, means they are rapidly moving towards a goal and in competition with others - PPL with different educational credentials enter at different job and income levels. - Modern professions (medicine and law) considered higher education, with ability to control career entries, reward systems, conditions of work. - TODAY, many careers are still gendered, ambitious women have glass ceilings. - Employers continue to prefer ppl from specific ethnic or racial groups or certain elite backgrounds. - But, all employers want someone highly educated over less educated. - 4 major theories to understand young adult's transition from school into labour force : - Segmented labour market theory - notes the labour market is stratified, entry and upward mobility are difficult for ppl with only high school education. - Human capital theory - attributes the problems of new labour force entrants to deficiencies in their training that lessen their value to the hiring organization - Signaling theory - employer's use of signs to judge the potential worth and trainability of a young employee - Network theory - describes the importance of social networks and social capital in gaining employment based on 'word' of a friend or relative, who vouches for the quality of potential employee. - Institutional linkages on 3 expectations about flow of labour - dependable supply, dependable skills, dependable quality. - What's needed is that high school counsellors engage more as gate keepers - must act vigoriously to discourage students whose college plans are inappropriate, to avoid unpleasant realities - Careers tie together life events, and also tie together institutional activities - Primary and secondary labour exists everywhere - Primary labour market - consists of jobs that offer good wages, chances to get ahead, job security (teacher, lawyer) - Secondary (marginal) labour market - consists of jobs that pay low wages, little chance to get ahead, little job security (taxi driver, secretary) - ppl w/ different social traits, backgrounds, skills are in diff makers Class: Social Mobility and Educational Inequality - this "race for rewards" happens according to social inequality - Social class born into, affects educational ambitions and pursuits - Growth of higher ed. in developed societies = stay longer in school = higher education - Canada is developed therefore all citizens, all race ethnicity or class, have same right to take part in comm. activities and social institution - BUT, less advantaged children aren't able to handle financial debt to complete post sec-ed Education and Gender - Uni and colleges opened many social and economic opportunities for females in CAN. - Before confederation, females had other house duties - keeping em away from school - Mount allison uni in New Brunswick enrolled first female students - Earlier years, women pushed to take general art degrees or domestic science courses and prevented from studying medicine - 50 years - closed for medicine for women - Elsie McGill - 1st to get degree in electrical engineering from UFT 1927 - 1999-2000, Canadian women got 59% of all post sec-degrees - Women underrepresented in engineering, applied sciences, maths - Continue to enter, social sciences, fine arts, humanities - Careers tend to lose prestige and pay as many women enter these jobs - Social benefits of jobs dramatic for both genders, especially girls - Highest levels of education in women come closest to job and income equality w/ men - In poor ppl, highly education helps in social equality - Women likely to be illiterate in sub-saharan africa, arab states, south asia. Education and Race Aboriginal Issues and Education - Aboriginal ppl were defined legally as "non citizens an wards of the state" - 1876 - gov tried assimilation on aboriginals - control and regulate all aspects of life VIAresidential schools – - RACIALIZATION - term for how social institutions impose racial identities on minorities - 45 res. schools fully funded by 1894, operated from 1892-1969 Aboriginal EducationalAttainment Today - Their education responsibility of federal gov. - Levels of their education drastically lower than everyone else - Urban residing aboriginals, received higher education (1981-2001) -less guys, more girls - More ppl got high school diplomas, especially men, started going to post-sec.ed. - Proportion of ab. males 25-34 who completed post-sec.ed increased 25% Immigrants and Visible Minorities: Contemporary Canadian Trends - Visible minority groups - half of toronto's pop. by 2017. - Today, visible minorities and immigrants more educated than general can. pop. - LARGELY due to Can's immigration policy - that have produced highly educated group of immigrant workers employment and income indicators show that - access to higher social status and economic positions in Canada is unequal - racial discrimination may be prevalent Work Discrimination and Unemployment - Foreign born visible minorities experience larger gap btwn education attainment and their occupation than other groups - Recent immigrants feel that their educational, work credentials not recognized in Can. - They get forced into job not their level - 6/10 immigrants to Can. did not work in same field after their arrival - 4 main factors affect entry level job status to immigrants - 1) thee specificity of skills required by nation's immigration policy. 2) educational competition btwn them and native born 3) labour market structure, 4) welfare state The Effectiveness of Schooling - Schools contribute little to reducing inequalities - Student's socio-economic status (measured by parental ed. job status, income) significantly influences student outcomes - Other researches say - Curriculum development, school org., teaching methods significantly affect schools, educational quality and student's achievements - Research shows link btwn person's school success, socio-economic factors, non economic factors are also relevant - 'good' schools in Ontario have principles, teachers, s
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