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Chapter 1

FCSS*1020 Chapter 1: Interpersonal Process

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Chapter 1: Interpersonal Process: Why We Communicate: Physical Needs:  Presence or absence can affect physical health, may be a matter of life or death - Ex. Solitary confinement in prisons  People who lack strong relationships run 2-3 times the risk of early death  People who report satisfying interpersonal relationships had reduced risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s  Divorced/separated and widowed people 5-10 times more likely to need psychiatric hospitalization  Perceived loneliness one of strongest predictors of poor health among elderly  Pregnant women without supportive relationships have 3 times as many complications Identity Needs:  Major way of learning who we are  Deprived of communication with others we would have no sense of identity  Gain ideas of who we are by how others define us Social Needs:  It is the principle way relationships are created  Helps us to help and be helped by others, feel included and worthwhile, have fun and relax with others  Helps us to exert influence and control in social situations  Some say communication is the primary goal of human existence  Positive social interaction and support appear to be strongest determinants of quality of life Practical Needs:  Essential part of effectiveness in daily situations  Communications skills essential for success at work  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: physical, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization Process of Communication:  Sending and receiving are usually simultaneous: you can be sending a message and receiving a message whether verbal or non-verbal from someone at the same time - People in the model are called communicators instead of senders and receivers  Meaning exists in and among people: messages (verbal/non verbal) don’t have meaning in themselves. Meaning comes from how you express or interpret it - There can be multiple interpretations so you have to negotiate a shared meaning  Environments affect communication: problems arise when communicators are in diff contexts - Environment: not only physical location but personal experiences and cultural backgrounds participants bring to a conversation  Noise affects communication: anything that interferes with transmission/reception of a message - External: factors outside receiver that make it difficult to listen (siren going by) - Physiological: biological factors (hearing loss) - Psychological: cognitive factors making communication less affective (misinterpreting)  Channels make a difference: what you use to communicate affects the quality and how its interpreted - Channel: medium through which messages are exchanged Communication Principles:  It is transactional: something you do with a partner not to them  Can be intentional/unintentional: non verbal, facial expressions, absence of behaviour  Has a content & relational dimension: content is what is being said, relation is how it makes the person feel  It is irreversible: can’t take back what you expressed, further explanation may clear things up  It is unrepeatable: can’t recreate an event Communication Misconceptions:  Not always to seek understanding: can be to persuade, mutual acknowledgement, ambiguity  More is not always better: too much talking about a problem, talking when angry is not good  Will not solve all problems: may explain but not fix a problem  Effective communication is not a natural ability: can be improved with practice Definitions:
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