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Chapter 7

FCSS*1020 Chapter 7: Non-Verbal Communication

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University of Guelph - Humber

Chapter 7: Non-Verbal Communication Definition: messages expressed by non-linguistic means Verbal Non-Verbal Mostly voluntary & conscious Mostly unconscious Content oriented Relational Can be clear or vague Inherently ambiguous Primarily shaped by culture Primarily shaped by biology Discontinuous or intermittent Continuous Single channeled Multi channeled Characteristics of Non-Verbal Communication:  All behaviour has communicative value - It is impossible not to communicate - Even when trying to not use non verbal cues we are still sending them - Uncontrollable behaviour can convey a message (ex. blushing)  It is primarily relational - Allows us to define kind of relationship we want to have with someone else (ex. choosing how to greet them – hug, kiss, handshake?) - Convey how much we like or dislike someone - Can also convey emotions were unwilling or unable to express or unaware of  It is ambiguous: - More likely to be misunderstood than verbal statements - Use caution when responding to non verbal cues rather than jumping to conclusions - More likely to be understood when combined with verbal statements  It is influenced by culture & gender - Emblems: culturally understood substitutes for verbal expressions - Some is universal (smiling, frowning) but the way they’re used in each culture is different - Some signs are specific to a culture - Generally women are more expressive and better at interpreting non-verbal behaviour Functions of Non-Verbal Communication:  Regulating: - Help control verbal interaction (ex. turn taking signals in conversation) - Change in pitch at end of sentence - Drawing out last syllable - Drop in loudness - Lack of visual contact signals turn taking  Repeating: - Helpful when describing an idea with a visual element - Saying something then showing it physically  Substituting: - Replacing verbal with non-verbal message - Some non-verbal behaviour lets us know something without a person having to say it  Complementing: - Illustrators: actions that have no meaning on their own but complement verbal statements - Ex. standing tall to accent you saying you’re proud - Illustrators are usually unconscious  Contradicting: - Alternative to express what you really mean non-verbally - Mixed messages when body contradicts what were saying - Sometimes done to avoid hurting feelings - When verbal and non-verbal messages contradict we tend to believe the non-verbal Hiding Deceit:  High self monitors are better at hiding deception and detecting it than those who are less self aware  People with power are better at hiding non verbal cues that indicate lying than those with less power  People who lie online are less likely to get caught than those who lie face-to-face  Most lying happens on telephone, least happens in email Detecting Deceit:  There are no reliable non-verbal cues that indicate deception but some clues may reveal lies. Liars tend to: - Be tenser and make a more negative impression - Experience involuntary shoulder shrugs and talk faster - Be more reserved, use less illustrators, tell less compelling tales - Make more speech errors and raise vocal pitch  3 methods for detect
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