Textbook Notes (362,820)
Canada (158,064)
Justice (21)
AHSS*1130 (9)

Ethnic and Race Relations Chapter

15 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph - Humber
John Irwin

Ethnic and Race Relations Introduction:  Canada most multicultural, except aboriginal everyone is either an immigrant or descended of an immigrant; 1 in 4 people people born outside of Canada, 13 mill immigrants  200 different ethnic groups, speaking 100 languages, mainly from Europe during first half of 20 century, non-Europeans have been accepted in larger numbers either as skilled workers, business immigrants, refugees, family members of previous immigrants  Relation of power, domination and subordination among individual and social group  Cannot understand current economic, political social conflict in Canada without understanding of ethnic and race relations; Brief History of Ethnicity and Race:  Ethnicity and race; historically specific significations; different things to different people at different times; non constant, or monolithic concepts; dynamic social relations in flux  Ethnicity refers to the social distinction and relations among individuals and groups based on cultural characteristics; language, religion, custom history o Ethnics = large group of people; o Herodotus first to study ethnic groups; his histories; find passages where several ethnic groups mentioned some of which reside in large urban Canadian centers today  Described their languages, gods and customs, their idiosyncrasies, their geography, and contacts with other groups, their history, political, social arrangement, economies  Greeks; geographically, politically fragmented; consisted an ethnic group they were common biological descents, had a common language, common gods, scared places, sacrificial festivals, customs, way of live, common character they bear; sense of belonging to together  Emile Durkheim; collective consciousness; primary source of identity formation o Emphasized importance of community or group sentiments over individual ones o Social solidarity is based on sameness, conformity of individual consciousness to collective o Similarities among members or sameness within group = lead members to differentiate between themselves and other non-members, preference to their own kind over others  Feeling of use vs. them feeling important in social group formation, reproduction and maintenance  Max Webber: social group formation associated with social practices of inclusion and exclusion; turn for the production and distribution of scarce valuable resources; goods, services, wage status, power o Practice of inclusion, exclusion constitutes the basis upon which decisions about rewards and sanctions are made o Common descent, culture, tribe, religion, nationally are important ethnic markers/ determinants of ethnicity; ethnic groups ; human groups entertain a subjective belief in their common descent  Because of similarities of physical type; or customs of both; memories of colonization and migration; important for propagation of group  Not a matter of objective blood relationship exists  Ethnicity; subjective presumed identity based on Weber; folk feeling without blood ties;  Ethnic identity linked to people primordial attachment o Hard primordialism; attachment based on blood ties o Soft ; Weber; proposes that people’s feelings of affinity attachment, acceptance, trust intimacy towards their own kind not mediated by blood ties  Race; peoples assumed, but socially significant physical and genetic characteristics  Weber; race; denote common identity based on biological heredity and endogamous conjugal groups o Not only customs,, but also visible similarities and different however minor serve as potential sources of affection and appreciation or repulsion and contempt o Similarity or contrast of physical type / habit induce belief that affinity and dis-affinity exist between groups that attract or repel each other; o Cultural / physical difference produced over time constitute the foundation upon which a consciousness of kind can be build; starting for familiar tendency to monopolistic closure refers to economic, political social process institutionalized  Members of the in-group have access to resource  Out-group members are excluded  Social boundaries have been set and reproduced over time;  Racialization: social relation among people structured by signification of human biological characteristics in a such a way as to define and construct differentiated social collectivities o Collectivities; are the majority; who are advantaged by racialization f others, and visible minorities who are disadvantaged by their observable difference from the majority  Historical process of this labeling social is the creation hierarchical social dichotomies by the attribution of negative intellectuals, moral and behavior characteristics to subordinate populations and the attribution of positive or not negative characteristics to the dominant groups. o Social positions of superiority and inferiority are thus created and social order is built  Ethnicity and Race: central fact in relation to power; socially constructed categories to classify human populations create social hierarchies; o Not only setting boundaries but hierarchical positions of superiority and inferiority among within social collectivities; meaning of categories and populations they describe or contain are not fixed in time and space;  Physical characteristics of humans that have been used to classify social groups include skin color, eye color, hair type, nose shape, lip shape, body hair, cheekbone structure, o Race as means to categorize human; linked to European voyages of discovery; historically accurate to colonization, exploitation domination, extermination of indigenous people  Race: definitions shifts; o Race meant descent; common history, lineage, not as real objective biological category o Linnaeus; classify and given Latin names to the flora and fauna of the natural world;  Race explain human, physical, social, moral, intellectuals variation among people  Colonization; capitalism as new mode of production, social dichotomy emerged; Self and Other o Self: European population, superior o Other: non Europeans; inferior, subordinate,  Before this , race was used in a legal sense; as self-identification label for aristocracy o But with emergence of bourgeoisies ;in France; terms were used to define others; other, negro, Jew, Arabs, Asiatic  Classification of certain groups as race was coupled with negative evaluations of members biological and social characteristics  Lord Durham; explain British French conflict in terms of racial not ethnic difference o Capital speaking English and workers speaking French  Social class position; with prevailing notions of femininity and masculinity have been used to describe and define races as social groups Building one Nation or Two: Canada’s DEVELOPMENT THROUGH IMMIGRATION  Why Immigration: state needs people; it needs the creation and management of human population, national identities and citizens; o Federal govern in 19-20late century wanted to increase population based; build country’s infrastructure, develop economy by promoting capitalist development, domestic international trade, engage in activities that build the nation o Today immigration; growing population to keep labor costs down, increase tax base, finance social program, increase international competitive, maintain comparative adv. in oil / gas industry and resource extraction; needs immigrants  1960;image of Canada as two charter group; built the country; British and French; everyone else join later; but this is inaccurate; British and France colonized the land; done at the expense of native people who were already here o Native lost land through colonization, warfare, deceitful treaties, but efforts to assimilate them into dominant aspect of both cultures ( British and French)  Left aboriginal long lasting cultural trauma without communal economic that has sustained them for centuries o Immigration from other countries began earnest around time of confederation, nation building required for the creation of a national transportation infrastructure ;  Canada’s first people were seen and treated as uncivilized savages; very much others  Cultural compatibility was requirement for immigration; offer of free land to European and American settlers; first wave of immigration 1896-1913 400000 people came o Immigration ceased with ww1, depression, ww2  Immigration picked up in 1950’s; o Immigrants admission was based on social hierarchy of ethnic and racial groups, some groups prefers, other labeled as not preferred; systematically excluded  Last resort (unsuitable) even thou they were ideal workers, law abiding people, desirable  Immigrants from China and India ; concern; to xenophophic authorities; because the formers were seen as unable to assimilate; thus unsuitable for permanent residence o Chinese were allowed due to cheap and disposable labor in the building transcontinental railway; increase head tax for Chinese who wanted to immigrate to Canada o Immigration of Chinese women was restricted because of fear they would reproduce the yellow peril and lead to the propagation of alien cultures and races, thus undermining the image of Canada as a white settle society  Immigrants from India ; racism prevalent in immigration policies; join lumber and mining industries; o Continuous journey stipulation policy; people who had made nonstop journey from their country of origin to Canada would be allowed as immigrants;  After WW2; minor improvement; discrimination did not end though; o Canada repealed the Chinese immigration act, and continuous journey stipulation o The government would still choose from large pool of legally sanctioned reasons to reject certain types of undesired immigrants; it was not until 1962; elimination of racist criteria in immigration selection, focus objective criteria; education, skills, work experience, language abilities • INCREASE OF SOUTH EUROPEANS Recent Canadian Immigration trends:  1980s, European white source countries has diminished substantially, since their standard of living has been improved markedly; and the emergence of the EU  Immigration drop from UK, Europe, and US  Asian and Pacific increased significant 3 – 50%, Middle east 20 percent increase Immigrants divided into 4 categories; skilled workers (majority 43%), business immigrant; 4.3%, the family; class 28% and refugees; 11.8, others 4.8%  Family class; immigrants are admitted because they have close relatives in Canada who are willing to sponsor them to come to and support them financially for a period of 3-10 years after they arrive  Refugee; Canada is signatory to international treaties; obliged by international law to provide asylum, to those people who come from countries with human rights violations  Business: 3 subcategories o Who have business experience ; worth 800,000 o Entrepreneurs who are worth at least 300,00 and manage company that will create at least one full time job in the country other than their own o Self-employed category; demonstrate to immigration official that they have skills and experience to start up a business, will create employment for themselves Unequal Distribution of Immigration in Canada  Ontario; 47%, Quebec 19 percent, BC 16.5 percent, Alberta, 8.8 percent, Manitoba, 4.6 percent o Increase the ethnic and racial makeup of certain parts of Canada; clear urban and rural divide; immigrants are attracted to major urban centers because they will usually find more economic opportunities and find other immigrants from their own part of the world Multiculturalism and Its Discontents  Meaning of social content of ethnicity and race are dynamic and fluid; not simple, one to one correspondence between individual people;, their culture, ethnicity and nation they belong to  Culture is not static, uniform, homogeneous; rather dynamic social processes, practices, collective response of socially constituted individuals to their ever changing external conditions determined by preexisting social structures  Culture values changed over time; hard years of Anglo or Franco cultural conformity; characterized by ethnocentrisms from era of colonization to the early 1970’s o Ethnocentric when individual evaluates negative the culture of others based on criteria derived from his own; charter groups have set the terms for the entrance of all others into country o PRESSURE ON MINORITY AND ABORIGINAL; ADOPT DOMINANT BRITISH RENCH VULTURAL VALUES, CUSTOM, SYMBOLS, OTHERS CONFORM TO THE SELF  Assimilation; defined as the process and social practiced by which members of minority groups are incorporated into dominant culture of a society; o Behavior assimilation; acquiring values of dominant group o structural assimilation; integration of others into economic, political, and social life of a country o not always a choice, forceful and violent like for the aboriginal  BANNING of customs, efforts to assimilate resemble American melting pot policies o Robert Park; when members of different ethnic group come into contact, competition and conflict occurs among members  PARK represented the interaction of whites / blacks in terms of race relation cycle, same cycle has also been applied to ethnic relations, • Included many stages, 2 routes, 1 outcome; fusion/assimilation o Initial contact = competition for access/ acquisition of valuable resources, competition can lead to accommodation and eventually fusion assimilation o or to conflict over the social and material resources that in turn lead to accommodation and then fusion assimilation • new culture that emerges from fusion is good for both and certainly good for the nation Multiculturalism: fairly recent policy development  means different things to different people; sociology has 4 interrelated meanings of it o demographic reality  part of pluralist ideology  form of struggle among minority groups for access to economic and political resources  set of government policies and accompanying programs  defined as an ideology: based on Canadian social reality; gives rise to sets of economic, political, social practices = define boundaries, limits to ethnic and racial group relations in order to maintain social order OR manage social change  Canadian multicultural society = Canadian population – 200 ethnic groups, before the implementation of multiculturalism as policy o Canadian ideology of multiculturalism has a normative description about how Canadian society ought to be; basis is cultural pluralism; advocates tolerance of cultural diversity/ compatible with nationa goals especially those of national unity and socio economic progress  Basic principles of multiculturalism rests on notion of cultural relativism as opposed to ethnocentricism; which promotes tolerance and diversity in order to achieve the peaceful co- existence of group in ethnically and racially heterogenous socities o Opposed to ethnocentricism; as it opposes judging other cultures by our own norms/ cultures  IF WE RECOGNIZE THE RIGHT of all people to self identity/ promote their culture = hopefully the same courtesy would be extended to individuals who share different cultural norms / values  Multiculturalism is a terrain and process of competition between minority for exonomic and political resources; as such it is used by governments as mechanism for conflict management and resolution o Not a gift to minority; it emerged for several reasons; political pressure from other disasstisfied ethnic groups, with royal commission on bilingualism and bilcutlrialism for the recognition of their contribution to Canadian society;  Became political necessity to counterbalance western alienation and quebec nationalism ;multiculturalism was an answer for this, elect support from immigrants in urban centres  Multiculturalism ; all government initiatives and programs that seek to realize multiculraism a
More Less

Related notes for AHSS*1130

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.