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Chapter 3

Major Social Processes Chapter 3 Sociology September 18.docx

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John Irwin

Major Social Processes: Chapter 3 Sociology September 19 Introduction:  Peter Berger defined socialization; process by which people learn to become members of society--- from birth and continues throughout life  Infancy/early childhood most intense period of socialization; from birth children begin to learn the basics of social interaction, learn to recognize and respond socially to parents and other important people in their lives o Acquire cognitive /emotional skills needed to get along in society o Children develop individual identity, a self concept  Language import part of socialization; catergorize experiencess  Children identify social roles;first family then others they interact o Understand status differences; how roles ineteract with race/class/gender to create social structure o Children conform to social expect they have internalized behavioural norms  Elanor Maccoby; result of socialization people acquire attitudes, skills and behaviours able them to avoid deviant behaviour, contribute through work for economic support, form close relations, be able to rear childdren in turn  Parents control early learning; but children are not passive receptors in the process  Socailization; two parts: development of self concept, internalization of social expectation Primary Socialization; most intense from birth through adolescence; family important agent  Intention and unintentional, imposed and reciprocal  Unintentional ; as children learn of power/class  Primary socialization is largely imposed because children have less power/competent Secondary Socialization: ongoing process of recalibrating throughout the life as people anticipate/adjust to new experiences and new situations  RECIPROCAL PROCESS; CHILDREN LEARN FROM PARENTS, PARENTS LEARN FROM CHILDRENE  Adult socialization differs from childhood socialization because it is based on accumulated learning and previous experiences  Antiicpatory Socialization:  Previous experiences provide the capacity to imagine new experiences so people become adept at anticpatory socialization o Mentally prepare themselves for futures roles and responsibility by means of anticpatory socialization o Robert K Merton; acquistion of values/oreintations found in statuses and groups in which one is not yet engaged by one is like to enter o Effectiveness depends on degree of ambuguity of a new situation/similarity to previous experience o Diane Bush/Roberta Simmons/ if individual is prepraed for new role, norms,skills and aware they will move into the new role easily  Vehciles; high school, university, Resocialization: experiences that they must learn new rules, cannot rely on experience or anticipate  Prison/psychiatric hospitals; specifically designed to resocialize deviants  Seiber/Gordon idea of socializing organizations by the way of socialization o Organizations mandated to bring change in their members  Therapy; self help groups are significant sources of change for adults as they iniate self resocialization Theories of Socialization:  Social structure as their point of departure/other individualistic interaction o Alan Dawe; sociology of social system and sociology of social action o Sociology of social system; action as the derivative of the system; functionalism; Talcot  Interested in how individauls interalize social norms / become conforming members of society o Symbolic Interactionism; how individual self concepts develop in process of social interaction Functionalism: socialization process of internalizing socially approved norms/behaviour expectations  Talcot Parson ^, people who group in a particular culture; interlaize similar set of norms/values o More widespread of their acceptance= group will run smoothlier  Conformity is consequence of interalizing behaviour expectations: deterministic – norms necessarily make individual Feminist Critique:  Critical of parsonian analysis because of implications that differences between men/women – differences in socialization  1st ; inequalityies as the reuslt of socialization avoid the issues of structural barriers of women  2nd ; socialization approach begged the question how parents socialized in traditoinal ways adopt non sexist child rearing practices  Socialization view it as consequence of systemic inequalities Symbolic INterationist: assumes individual actively participate in their own socialization  Goerge Herbert Mead: Charlges Cooley; developing symbolic interactionist perspective o How individuals develop sense of self and in the importance of family interaction in this processs o Children born with instinctive capacity for self development, which matured through interactions in primary groups; chracterized by intimate face to face association/cooper o Adults communivat attitudes/values through language, children develop self concept based on this  Sense awareness; people see themselves as they imagine others to see them\ I feel about me the way I think you think about me; looking glass self • Three elements; imagination of our appearance to other person • Imagination of his judgment of that appearacne, some sort of self feeding pride of mortification • Reaction of others; important in determining how people feel about themselves o Mead: self concept two components the Me; socially defined self that has interanlized societys norms and values and the I that spontaneous creative self' • I; makes everyone different form others • Me induces people to conform to behaviour expectations  Importance of childrens imaginative paly in early socialization; become sensitive to responses of others  Learning symbolic, by taking roles ; to present themselves in different social situations; process consists of four stages  Preplay; childrens behaviour is a combination of instinctive behaviour and imitation: until 2 years  Play ; Effect in role-playing; learn to assume the roles of others/objectify that experience from seeing themselves the point of view of others; 2 to school  Game Stage: learn to handle several roles at once, anticipate behaviours of other, expect others have of them; school till puberty  Genrealized other stage; interalize general social expectations by imaging how others will act/react; sense of self and react in socially approved way  Social meaning based on assumptions concerning understanding/intention of others Psychological Theories of Socialization:  Emotional development of children measures as a progression of 5 stages stages  Oral: first year when children are fed/experience positive sensation through suckling o Observe world by putting objects in their mouths  Anal; toilet training; first experience with self control  Phallic stage; gender differences, aware of sex differences follwed by sex drive dormant before becoming awakend in adolescene  Erick Erikson; 8 stages; turning points from infancy to old age; conflict whose resolution= specific human capacity  Freud: theory of personality development; awareness of 2 components of personality ; id, ego, superego, the ego mediates between the id(basic instincts) and super ego internalized values  Sociology think the ego and superego develop socially; undergo process of socialization  Behaviour theories; describe socialization fas a process of learning through identification and reinforcement; encourages some behaviours vs discouraging others  Albert Bandura;imiative behaviour, behaviour based on imitation of parents Agents of Socialization: social institutions in children environment that have the greatest effect on them Family: most impressive agent of socialization  Children learn how to relate others ,express intimacy, resolve conflicts  Parenting style; most effective in developing high self esteem; encourage self regulating skills is a combination of warmth and discipli
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