Textbook Notes (363,550)
Canada (158,417)
KIN*1030 (1)
Schleiner (1)
Chapter 1

Nutrition chapter 1 note

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph - Humber

500 BC- Anaxagoras reasoned food has generative components (eluding to nutrients) • 460 BC- Hippocrates recognized medical exams should focus on individual • 1614- Sanctorius concludes that what goes in does not equal what goes out eluding to metabolism • 1600- Supplements helps individuals with particular disease and some nutrients are essential • 1800- nutrients prevent disease • 1900- how much each nutrient is needed for optimal health • 2000- nutritional genomics how diet and genes can interact to affect health • Nutrition- ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes and excretes food substances • Modern nutrition- understand optimal levels of nutrients • Nutrigenomics- effects of nutrients on gene expressing • Essential nutrient- required for metabolism but cannot be synthesized or cannot be synthesized rapidly enough for physiological functions • Nutrition deficiencies- nutrient intake consistently falls below recommended requirements • Anemia- not enough red blood cells to transport O2 around the body ( not enough iron, folate or B12) • Rickets- defective bone growth (not enough vit D0 10% from diet, 90% from sunlight) • Beriberi- abnormalities in nervous system (not enough B1) • Scurvy- Bleeding of the gums and problems with iron absorption (not enough vit C) • Deficiency (not meeting min amounts to prevent disease) does not equal nutritional requirements (amount necessary for optimal health) • EAR- Estimated average requirements (50% of pop) • RDI- Reference daily intake (97-98 of pop) (less risk then ear for disease) (fat -65 g, carbs- 300g, protein 50g) • Minnesota starvation experiment- conducted byAncel Keys- 3 months at 3200 cal, 6 months at 1800 cal, 3 months rehab • Adequate diet- enough calories, essential nutrients and fiber to keep healthy • Moderate diet- do not consume excess calories or eat more of one food • Balanced diet- nutrient dense food • Varied diet- wide selection of foods for nutrients • Organic (carbon)- Carbs, fibers, proteins, vitamins • Inorganic- Minerals, Water • Macronutrients- Lipid, Carbs, fiber, protein • micronutrients- vitamins, minerals • body composition- 60% water, 2 vitamins, 20-25 lipids, 15 protein, .5 carbs • anabolism (energy in , compounds constructed like insulin) +catabolism (energy out, compounds broken down like glucagon) =metabolism • h20- essential nutrient, 2-2.5 kg a day, solvent, lubricant, temperature reg, catabolism(hydrolysis), carbs- 250-350 g/d, fat 60-80 g/d, protein 50-80 g/d • water toxicity- more water than kidney can handle (.9 l/hr), leads to hyponatremia • Hyponatremia- metabolic condition there is not enough salt in body fluid outside cell 2 • FoodAnalysis- analytical methods or characterizing foods and their constituents • Government reg- food quality, safety standards, fair competition, and no econ fraud • Quality control- food characteristics do not change and characterize raw material • Food- Nutrient dens food vs empty calorie food • Proximate analysis model- moisture (water), ether extract, ash, nitrogen, crude fiber • Moisture- price of feed, sipping costs, dilutes energy, nutrients, optimum intake/performance (%moisture=(weight loss/ wet weight sample)*100, %dry matter=100-% moisture • Potential errors- drying removes water but also volatile components, slight underestimation of dry weight, there is a difference in human and agricultural application • Ether extract (fat- ether is an organic solvent that solubilizes the fat)- %crude fat=(weight of crude fat/ wet weight of sample)* 100% • Potential errors-chlorophyll, resins and waxes are also found (new method just gets fat) • Ash (mineral content, must be burned off to isolate minerals)- affects quality and taste of food- %ash=weight of crude ash/ wet weight of sample)* 100% • Potential error- volatile minerals are present and none can be identified • Nitrogen (crude protein)- Kjeldahl analysis %crude protein=((N in sample*6.25)/wet weight)*100, also nitrogen*6.25=crude protein • Kjeldahl analysis- digestion (homogenous sample of mixed sulfuric acid(nitrogen into ammonia), distillation (separating the ammonia), titration (quantifying the amount of ammonia with standard solution (100(protein)/16 (all protein has 16% nitrogen)=6.25 • Potential error- assuming all protein 16 nitrogen (usually 13-19%) therefore new factor can be calculated i.e. 100%protein/20% nitrogen=5.0 (new factor instead of 6.25) • Crude Fiber= ((wt. ofASH+Crude Fiber)-wt. of ash)/wet weight*100 • Potential Error-underestimate fiber sensitive to acid like hemicellulose and pectin, crude fiber is not dietary fiber. Crude fiber survives acid but dietary does not • Nitrogen free extract (NFE)= digestible carbs (CHO i.e. starch/ sugar)- %NFE= 100- ( moisture + crude fat + ash + crude protein + crude fiber) • Potential errors- accumulates errors of other components • Dietary fiber- non digestible, structural part of plant (insoluble- cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, remains intact through intestinal tract, while soluble like pectin gums and miculages turns into a gel • Van Soest method- quantifies fermentable and non-fermentable carbs for agricultural purposes. Differentiates between insoluble fiber components (cellulose, lignin) but poorly differentiates
More Less

Related notes for KIN*1030

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.