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Chapter 4

Chapter 4. Evidence and Errors in Thinking.docx

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BUSI 1010U
William Thurber

Critical Thinking And EthicsChapter 4 Knowledge EvidenceErrors in ThinkingthSeptember 18 2011Human Knowledge and its limitationsKnowledge information which we believe to be true and for which we have justification or evidenceRationalism and EmpiricismOur views of ourselves and the world around us are shaped by our understanding of the nature of truth and the ultimate sources of knowledgeRationalistsone who claims that most human knowledge comes through reasonGreek philosopher Plato believed that there is an unchanging truth we can know through reason and that most of us confuse truth with worldly appearanceEmpiricistone who believes that we discover truth primarily through our physical senses Science is based on empiricism where we make direct observations of the world and come up with a hypothesis to explain these observationsStructure of the MindGerman philosopher Immanuel Kant argued that how we experience reality is not simply a matter of pure reason rationalism or of using physical senses empiricism but depends on the structure of our mindsMost neurologists believed as Kant that we do not see reality directly as it is but that instead our mind or brain provides structure and rules for processing incoming informationExample according to the string theory in physics there are at least nine spatial dimensions But our brains are structured to perceive a 3D worldEffective critical thinking requires that we be aware of our strengths and limitations and that we strive to improve our style of inquiry and our understanding of the worldEvidencereasons for believing that a statement or claim is true or probably true
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