Chapter 2 Job analysis and design
-knowledge about jobs and their requirements must be collected through job analysis
*job analysis –is the systematic study of a job to dicover its specification, skill requirement, and
so on, for wage-setting, recruitment, training or job simplification
-without job analysis information, HR specialist will find it difficult to evaluate how environmental
challenges or specific job requirements affect employees quality of work.
Job analysis has three phases: preparations, collection of job information, and use of job
information for improving organizational effectiveness. Job analysis questionnaire-is a check list that seek to collect information about jobs in a uniform
They are important when collecting info from human sources
Most standardized questionairs attempt to measure the following items.
Status and identification- statsu refers to whether the job is exempt from overtime laws. Other
identification information include job title job title division and title of supervisor, and sometimes
a unique job identification number
Duties and responsibilities-a job analysis explains the purpose of the job, accomplishes and
how the job is performed, where the summary is a quick overview, the specific duties and
responsibilities are listed to give more detailed insight into the position. Responsibity question
are expanded when refereeing to management jobs.
Human characteristics and working condition- analysts need to uncover the particular skills,
abilities, training, education, experience, and other characteristics that jobholders need. Working
conditions may explain the need for particular skills training, knowledge, or even a particular job
Performance standard- it also seeks information about standards whch are used to evaluate
performance. So ppl can see what level they have to be working at to be a good or bad worker.
Functional job analysis- classifies tasks using three functional scales related to data, people,
and things. Functional scales ranks behaviours according to complexity. Lowest level is taking
order highest is monitoring others. The job analyst indicates the level at which the employee is
operating for each of the three categories
These are different types of standardized job analysis step 6 choice of method for data collection
you can use interview focus groups questionaires employee logs, observations or some
combination of these techniques .
interviews-approach to collecting job and performance related information by face to face
meeting with jobholder, typically using a standardized questionnaire. The process is slow and
expensive it allows the interview to explain unclear questions and probe into uncertain answers.
Focus groups- a face to face meeting with five to seven knowledgeable experts on a job and a
facilitator to collect job and performance related information. They are useful cuz it allows ideas
to build off on another and to gain consensus on job duties and responsibilities.
Mailed questionnaires- fast and less costly option, can be done using email inter mail or Canada
post. Can study many jobs at once with little cost. But less accuracy cuz of the ppl might not
understand the questions, incomplete response, unreturned questionnaires to vairify employee
response. Ex pulse survey.
Employee log- approach to collecting job and performance related information by asking the
jobholder to summarize tasks, activities, and challenges in a diary format. Workers periodically
summarize their takes and activities. They are time consuming and costly. If entries are not
frequent then accuracy goes down.
Observation – an approach to collecting job and performance related information by direct
observation of jobholders by a specialist. It is slow costly and less accurate. Analysis might miss
things, or workers might work differently when being watched
Combinations-each method has its short comings, so analyst usally use 2 or more techniques.
When choosing a method you should consider purpose fit, practical feasibility, cost and
reliability of the data collected for making valid decisions. Phase 3 use of job analysis information
-info collected of jobs is put into such usable forms as job description, job specification, and job
standards, and more recently competency models. These application for job analysis info
provide a min human resource info system and data necessary for formulating various HR
CONTENT OF ATYPICAL JOB DESCRIPTION
The key parts for a job description is job identity, job summary, job duties, and working
conditions. Most also identify the author, the work supervisor and the data on which it was
Job identity-key part of a job decription, including job title, location, and status
Job codes use number letter or both to provide a quick summary of the job.
National occupational classification-an occupational classification created by the federal
government using skill level and skill types of jobs.
Job summary and duties
Following the job identification sec
part of the description is job summary. Summarize the job in a few sentences .what how and
why is answered. Then job responsibilities are listed.
working conditions-facts about the situation in which the worker act. Include physical
environment, hours, hazards, travel, requirements