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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Data and Knowledge Management.docx

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BUSI 3040U
Stephen Marsh

Chapter5DataandKnowledgeManagement51ManagingDataIT applications require data and these data should be high quality meaning to be accurate complete timely consistent accessible relevant and concise The difficulties of Managing Data1 The amount of data increases exponentially with time2 Data are scattered throughout the organizations and are collected by many individuals using different methods and devices They are frequently stored in numerous servers and locations and in different computing systems databases formats and human and computer languages 3 Data are obtained from multiple sources Internal sources personal sources and external sources They are also downloaded from the web in the form of clickstream dataClickstream dataproduced by visitors and customers when they visit a web site and click on hyperlinks They provide a trail of the users activities in the web site including user behaviour and browsing patterns 4 Data degrade over time Customers may move to new addresses or change their names companies go out of business new products developed etc5 They are subject to data rotrefers primarily to problems with the media on which the data are stored Temperature humidity and exposure to light can cause physical problems with storage media and thus make it difficult to access the data 6 Data security quality and integrity are critical Legal requirements relating to data differ among countries as well as industries7 Over time organizations have developed information systems for specific business process such as transaction processing supply chain management customer relationship management and others IS that specifically support these processes impose unique requirements on data and creating repetition and conflicts across an organization Provides INCONSISTENT DATA in the enterprise and prevent a company from developing a unified view of core business information 8 Two other factors complicate Federal regulations and the law Federal regulationsSarbanesOxleyrequires companies to account for how information is being managed within their organization and mandates 1 public companies evaluate and disclose the effectiveness of their internal financial controls and 2 independent auditors for these companies confirm this disclosure Data Governance is an approach to managing information across an entire organization involves a formal set of business processes and policies designed to ensure that data are handled in a certain welldefined fashion Follows unambiguous rules for creating collecting handling and protecting its informationMaster data managementis a process that spans all of an organizations business processes and applications Provides companies with the ability to store maintain exchange and synchronize a consistent accurate and timely single version of the truth for the companys master data Master dataare a set of core data such as customer product employee vendor and geographic location that span all of the enterprises information systems Involve multiple transactions and used to categorize aggregate and evaluate the transaction data Transaction dataare generated and captured by operational systems describe the activities or transactions of the business 52TheDatabaseApproachIn a file management environment each application has a specific data file related to it that contains all the data records needed by the application Databasesare arranged so that one set of software programsthe database management systemprovides all users with access to the data It minimizes the following problemi Data redundancySame data stored in many placesii Data isolation Applications cannot access data associated with other applicationsiii Data inconsistencyVarious versions of the data do not agreeIt strengths the followingi Data securityHave extremely high security measures in place to deter mistakes and attacksii Data integrity Data meet certain constraints such as no alphabetic characters in a social security number fieldiii Data independenceApplications and data are not linked to each other so that all applications are able to access the same data The data Hierarchy begins with bits and proceeds all the way to databases BitRepresents the smallest unit of data a computer can process ByteRepresents a single characterletter or number or symbol is a group of 8 bits FieldA logical grouping of characters into a word a small group of words or an identification number Can contain images and any other type of multimedia Ex Students name RecordA logical grouping of related fields compromised together
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