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Chapter 1

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CHEM 1010U
Steve Hutchinson

Chemistry Chapter OneClassification of MatterMatter is made up of very tiny units called atoms of which we know about 114 types Each type of atom is the building block of a different chemical element thus there are 114 elements 90 of all elements are natural and the remaining percentage of elements is those synthesized in the laboratories When two or more elements are joined they form a compound A compound is made of many molecules A molecule is the smallest entity having the same proportions of the constituent atoms as does the compound as a wholeAn element and compounds are referred to as substances When two or more substances mix they form a mixture When a mixture is uniform in composition and properties throughout it is known as a homogeneous mixture or solution eg ordinary air seawater and gasoline When the composition and physical properties vary from one part of the mixture to another it is known as a heterogeneous mixture eg sand and waterSeparating MixturesConsider the mixture of sand and water being poured into a funnel lined with porous filter paper The water passes through but the sand is retained This process of separation is known as filtration On the other hand we cannot filter a homogeneous mixture of copper II sulphate However this compound can be separated by boiling This process is called distillationStates of MatterMatter generally exists in 3 states solid liquid or gas A solid contains atoms or molecules in close contact sometimes in a highly organized arrangement called a crystal As well a solid had a definite shape In a liquid the atoms or molecules are usually further apart The movement of these atomsmolecules give a liquid its most distinctive property the ability to flow covering the bottom and assume the shape of its container In a gas the distance between atoms molecules is much greater A gas always expands to fill its container In water specifically ice it is important to remember that liquid water is more dense than ice since all the molecules in the liquid are joined tightly to each other to provide a sturdy framework for a block of iceSI and NonSI Units Read 14Density and Percent Composition When someone says a ton of bricks weigh more than a ton of cotton they have the concepts of weight and density confused Matter in a brick is more concentrated
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