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A&PII Ch 21 Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System.docx

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Health Science
HLSC 1201U
Elita P.

Ch 21Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System Pericardium - Covering of the heart functions to protect against friction - Fibrous pericardium – Tough, loose-fitting inextensible sac, outer layer - Serous pericardium – Parietal layer lies inside the fibrous pericardium and visceral layer (epicardium) adheres to the outside of the heart - Pericardial space contains 10 – 15 ml of pericardial fluid - Epicardium – considered the outer layer of the heart wall/inner heart and heart layer - Myocardium – delicate, inner layer of endothelial tissue Structure of the heart - The heart has 4 chambers – 2 atria and 2 ventricles - 2 atria: Superior chambers receive blood from veins and pump it into ventricles - Thin myocardium – low pressure (small distance) - 2 ventricles: Inferior chambers receive blood from atria, pump it into arteries - Right ventricle pumps blood into lungs - Medium myocardium – medium pressure (medium distance) - Left ventricle pumps blood to entire body - Thick myocardium – high pressure (long distance) Heart valves - SL valves prevent backflow into the ventricles; pulmonary valve and aortic valve - Atrioventricular (AV) valves prevent backflow into the atria; tricuspid valve and mitral valve Coronary circulation - Coronary arteries – first branch off the aorta; each ventricle receives blood only from a small branch of a coronary artery, few anastomoses - Cardiac veins; generally parallel to arteries, most veins drain into the coronary sinus to the right atrium Blood vessel structure - Layers: tunica externa – found in arteries and veins (tunica adventitia), fibrous connective tissue/collagen fibers - Tunica media – found in arteries and veins, smooth muscle/elastic membrane - Tunica itima – found in all blood vessels; only layer pre
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