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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Reseach (Reading Notes).docx

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School
UOIT
Department
Criminology and Justice
Course Code
PSYC 1000U
Professor
Leigh Harkins

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Chapter One – Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Notes  What is the need for psychological science? o Why are the answers that flow from the scientific approach more reliable than those based on intuition and common sense? o Some people think that psychology documents what people already know  Some say people get paid thousands to prove in a fancy matter what their grandmother already knew o A long list of pop psychology books actually encourage us towards  “Intuitive Managing”  “Intuitive Trading”  “Intuitive Healing” o To the present day psychological science documents a vast intuitive mind o Our thinking, memory, and attitudes operate on two levels which are  Conscious  Unconscious o Though intuition is important, we often underestimate its threats o There are limits of intuition  Did we know it all alone? Hindsight Bias o Finding that something has happened makes it seem inevitable, a tendency we call Hindsight bias  Also known as a I KNEW IT ALL ALONG PHENOMENON  It is said that this phenomenon is easy to demonstrate o Good ideas are like inventions  Once created, they seem obvious  Sometimes grandma’s intuition informed by countless observations has it wrong  Overconfidence o We as humans tend to be over confident o We think we know more than we do o Something that is very hard to unscramble seems pretty obvious (hindsight does this)  The Scientific Attitude o Underlying all science is, first a hard headed curiosity o No matter how sensible or crazy an idea sounds, the question is “will it work” o James Randi – lets the facts speak for themselves o more often science becomes society’s garbage disposal o Do parental behaviors determine children’s sexual orientation? o Putting scientific attitude into practice requires not only skepticism but also humility  An awareness of our own vulnerability to error and being open to surprises o A skeptic is one who is willing to question any truth that they claim  Critical Thinking o The scientific attitude prepares us to think smarter o Smart Thinking which is called Critical Thinking;  Examines assumptions  Discerns values  Evaluates evidence o Critical thinkers ask questions o How do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions?  Psychologists arm their scientific attitude with th
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