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Chapter 2

Psychology Lecture Notes - Chapter Two.docx

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School
UOIT
Department
Criminology and Justice
Course Code
PSYC 1000U
Professor
Leigh Harkins

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Psychology – Chapter Two (The Brain) – Lecture The Brain –  Why we behave the way we do  Why we act the way we do  We are our brains Neuron –  Basic building blocks of the brain  Controls basic metabolic function of each neuron  Messages are received through the dendrites  The axon is how information is passed from the cell body down to other cell neurons  The axons is where information goes a long until it makes it way to the next muscle  Terminal branches form junctions with other cells  The axon is covered in myelin sheath – helps the electrical signal move faster  Node of Ranvier help the electrical impulse move faster Neural Communication –  Each neuron receives a number of messages which can be excitatory or inhibitory  When they reach a certain level or threshold the neuron fires which is known as action potential  Positive ions flow into the axon which changes the overall value of the axon  It goes from negative to positive as the permeability changes  Changes the resting potential to action potential  Moves from node to node  All-or-nothing response o A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire o And to fire more often o But it does not affect the action potential o Intensity remains the same throughout the action potential Synapse –  Synapse is the junction between the axon tip of the second neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron  Start with the electrical impulse  Travels from one neuron to another  Once the information gets to the end where there are a number of vesicles that contain neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitters are then released from the end of the synapse o then released into a small space called synaptic gap Neurotransmitters –  cross the synaptic gap  influence the new neuron and being excited enough to go through the action potential again  it is basically a process  influence the likelihood of generating an action potential Lock and Key Mechanism –  neurotransmitters bind to receptors of the receiving neuron in a key-lock mechanism  similar to how a lock fits a key  different drops can cause problems with the lock-key mechanism  agonists mimic neurotransmitters  if the brain is responding to the drugs as if they were naturally occurring – if you take a lot of morphine then your body is not producing it anymore because the body does not naturally produce it  drugs can also act as antagonists – o they are sort of similar enough to fit but it does not completely fit so it cannot mimic  overall – o AGONISTS – mimic o ANTAGONISTS – do not mimic  If there isn’t enough dopamine we find people then after the effect of cocaine to be somewhat depressed - The oldest part of the brain is the brainstem o Controls things like breathing and our heartbeat - Pons o Involved in movement o Respiration - Cerebellum o Coordinates fine muscle movement o Means little brain o Attached to the back of the brain stem o Helps us judge time o Modulate emotions o Helps us look at texture o Mainly responsible for voluntary movement - Medulla o Responsible for breathing and heart rate o Other vital functions o The first part where it starts to swell into the brain from the spinal cord o It’s an area where all our resources cross over from one hemisphere to another - Cerebral Cortex o All four lobes o All occur on the cerebral cortex of the brain o Thin outer layer of the brain - The brain is separated into two hemispheres which is left and right - Thalamus o Receiving area where the information is sent out to the cortex for higher processing o Kind of like a sensory switchboard o Redirected to other place o Transmits and replies to the cerebellum and medulla o Takes information in and sends it back out o EXAMPLE: think of this as Union S
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