Research Methods – Chapter 2: Research Design
Reliability, replication and validity r presented as criteria for assessing the quality of social research.
Reliability is concerned with the question of whether the results of a study r responsible. Commonly used in relation to
the question of whether of the measures dat r devised for concepts in the social sciences r consistent. Reliability is
particularly at issue in connection with quantitative research. The quantitative researcher is more likely to b concerned
with the question whether a measure is stable or not.
Replication occurs when sometimes the research decide to replicate the findings of others.
Validity is most imp criteria of research. It is concerned with the integrity of the conclusions that r generated from a
piece of research. Main type of validity: 1) Measurement Validity- primarily applies to quantitative research and to the
search for measures of social scientific concepts. AKA construct validity. It is to do wid the question of whether a
measure that is devised of a concept really does reflect the concept that is supposed to b denoting. 2) Internal Validity-
this relates to issue of causality. This validity is concerned with the question of whether a conclusion that incorporates a
causal relationship btw two or more variable. Issue of causality it is common to refer to a factor that has a causal
impact as independent and the effects as the dependent variable. 3) External Validity- issue is concerned with the
question of whether the results of a study can b generalized beyond the specific research context. The quantitative
researcher r keen to generate representative samples. 4) Ecological Validity- is concerned with question of whether
social scientific finding r applicable to ppl’s everyday social setting. This validity is concerned with the question of
whether social researcher sometimes produces findings that may b technically valid but have little to do with what
happens in ppl everyday lives. If research findings r ecologically invalid, they r in a sense artefacts of the social scientist
arsenal of data collection and analytical tools.
Measurement of validity and internal validity is for quantitative researcher. External Validity is relevant to qualitative
research. However, ecological validity is related to both quantitative and qualitative research.
Each aspect of trustworthiness is has a parallel with the previous quantitative research criteria. 1) Credibility (internal
validity) how believable r the things? 2) Transferability (external validity) do the things apply to other context? 3)
Dependability (reliability) r the findings likely to apply @ other times? 4) Conformability (objectivity) has the
investigator allowed his or her values to intrude to a high degree?
Five diff. types of research designs: