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Chapter 2

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Social Science
SSCI 2900U
Olga Marques

Research Methods – Chapter 2: Research Design  Reliability, replication and validity r presented as criteria for assessing the quality of social research.  Reliability is concerned with the question of whether the results of a study r responsible. Commonly used in relation to the question of whether of the measures dat r devised for concepts in the social sciences r consistent. Reliability is particularly at issue in connection with quantitative research. The quantitative researcher is more likely to b concerned with the question whether a measure is stable or not.  Replication occurs when sometimes the research decide to replicate the findings of others.  Validity is most imp criteria of research. It is concerned with the integrity of the conclusions that r generated from a piece of research. Main type of validity: 1) Measurement Validity- primarily applies to quantitative research and to the search for measures of social scientific concepts. AKA construct validity. It is to do wid the question of whether a measure that is devised of a concept really does reflect the concept that is supposed to b denoting. 2) Internal Validity- this relates to issue of causality. This validity is concerned with the question of whether a conclusion that incorporates a causal relationship btw two or more variable. Issue of causality it is common to refer to a factor that has a causal impact as independent and the effects as the dependent variable. 3) External Validity- issue is concerned with the question of whether the results of a study can b generalized beyond the specific research context. The quantitative researcher r keen to generate representative samples. 4) Ecological Validity- is concerned with question of whether social scientific finding r applicable to ppl’s everyday social setting. This validity is concerned with the question of whether social researcher sometimes produces findings that may b technically valid but have little to do with what happens in ppl everyday lives. If research findings r ecologically invalid, they r in a sense artefacts of the social scientist arsenal of data collection and analytical tools.  Measurement of validity and internal validity is for quantitative researcher. External Validity is relevant to qualitative research. However, ecological validity is related to both quantitative and qualitative research.  Each aspect of trustworthiness is has a parallel with the previous quantitative research criteria. 1) Credibility (internal validity) how believable r the things? 2) Transferability (external validity) do the things apply to other context? 3) Dependability (reliability) r the findings likely to apply @ other times? 4) Conformability (objectivity) has the investigator allowed his or her values to intrude to a high degree?  Five diff. types of research designs:
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