ADM 3321 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Weight Watchers, Reference Group, Sociometry
SchoolUniversity of Ottawa
Course CodeADM 3321
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Group Influence and Social Media
•!Our desire to “fit in” or to identify with desirable individuals or
groups is the primary motivation for many of our purchases and
•!A reference group is an actual or imaginary individual or group
conceived of as having significant relevance upon an individual’s
evaluations, aspirations, or behaviour.
o!Informational, utilitarian, value-expressive influences
o!Table 11-1 pg. 320
Types of Reference Groups
•!The term reference group is often used a bit more loosely to
describe any external influences that provides social cues.
•!The referent may be a cultural figure and have an impact on many
people. Or it may be a person or group whose influence is confined
to the consumer’s immediate environment.
o!E.g. parents, Toronto Raptors, bands such as Arcade Fire
•!Some people influence us simply because we feel similar to them.
•!One reason we feel a bond with fellow brand users is that we feel
attracted to people similar to ourselves.
•!Some groups and individuals exert a greater influence than others
and for a broader range of consumption decisions.
o!The reference group helps to set and enforce fundamental
standards of conduct.
o!E.g. parents may play a pivotal role in forming our values
o!Decision about specific brands or activities are affected.
o!E.g. A weight watchers group
•!Formal Versus Informal Groups
o!Large formal organization
!!Has a recognized structure, complete with a charter,
regular meeting times, and officers.
o!Small informal one
!!E.g. group of friends or students living in a student
o!Marketers tend to be more successful at influencing formal
than informal groups because they are more easily
identifiable and accessible.
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