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Chapter 3

ADM2336 Chapter 3: Organizational Commitment

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Department
Administration
Course
ADM2336
Professor
Craig Kuziemsky
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter  3             Organizational  Commitment   ORGANIZATIONAL  COMMITMENT   Organizational  commitment  is  defined  as  the  desire  on  the  part  of  an  employee  to   remain  a  member  of  the  organization.     • Organizational  commitment  influences  whether  an  employee  stays  a  member   of  the  organization  or  leaves  to  pursue  another  job.     • It  is  important  to  acknowledge  that  turnover  can  be  both  voluntary  and   involuntary  (quitting  and  being  fired)   • Employees  who  are  not  committed  to  their  organization  engage  in   withdrawal  behaviour,  defined  as  a  set  of  actions  that  employees  perform  to   avoid  the  work  situation  –  behaviours  that  may  eventually  culminate  in   quitting  the  organization.   WHAT  DOES  IS  MEAN  TO  BE  “COMMITTED”?   FORMS  OF  COMMITMENT   • Affective  commitment,  defined  as  a  desire  to  remain  a  member  of  an  organization   due  to  an  emotional  attachment  to,  and  involvement  with,  that  organization.     • Continuance  commitment,  defined  as  a  desire  to  remain  a  member  of  an   organization  because  of  an  awareness  of  the  costs  associated  with  leaving  it.     • Normative  commitment,  defined  as  a  desire  to  remain  a  member  of  an   organization  due  to  a  feeling  of  obligation.   • Organizational  commitment  depends  more  than  just  “the  organization”.   o People  aren’t  always  committed  to  companies,  they’re  also  committed   to  the  top  management  that  leads  the  firm  at  a  given  time,  etc.     o We  use  the  term  focus  of  commitment  to  refer  to  the  various  people,   places,  and  things  that  can  inspire  a  desire  to  remain  a  member  of  an   organization.     AFFECTIVE  COMMITMENT   • Employees  who  feel  a  sense  of  affective  commitment  identify  with  the   organization,  accept  that  organization’s  goals  and  value,  and  are  more  willing   to  exert  extra  effort  on  behalf  of  the  organization.     • Employees  who  are  affectively  committed  to  their  employer  tend  to  engage   in  more  interpersonal  and  organizational  citizenship  behaviours.   • Because  affective  commitment  reflects  an  emotional  bond  to  the  organization,   it’s  only  natural  that  the  emotional  bonds  among  co-­‐workers  influence  it.     • The  erosion  model  suggests  that  those  employees  with  fewer  bonds  will  be   the  most  likely  to  quit  the  organization.   • The  social  influence  model  suggests  that  employees  who  have  direct   linkages  with  “leavers”  will  themselves  become  more  likely  to  leave.     CONTINUANCE  COMMITMENT   • Continuance  commitment  exists  when  there  is  a  benefit  associated  with   staying  and  a  cost  associated  with  leaving   • With  high  continuance  commitment  making  it  very  difficult  to  change   organizations  because  of  the  steep  penalties  associated  with  the  switch.   • One  factor  that  increases  continuance  commitment  is  the  total  amount  of   investment  that  an  employee  has  made  in  mastering  his  or  her  work.   • Another  factor  is  a  lack  of  employment  alternatives.   • The  correlation  between  continuance  commitment  and  work  outcomes,   other  than  turnover,  tends  to  be  characterized  as  negligible.   • Continuance  commitment  focuses  on  personal  and  family  issues  more  than   the  other  two  commitment  types   • Embeddedness  summarizes  a  persons  link  to  the  organization  and  the   community,  his  or  her  sense  of  fit  with  that  organization  and  community,  and   what  he  or  she  would  have  to  sacrifice  for  a  job  change.   NORMATIVE  COMMITMENT   • Normative  commitment  exists  when  there  is  a  sense  that  staying  is  the   “right”  or  “moral”  thing  to  do.     • The  sense  that  people  should  stay  with  their  current  employer  may  result   from  personal  work  philosophies  or  more  general  codes  of  right  and  wrong   • One  way  to  create  a  feeling  that  the  employee  is  in  the
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