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Chapter 5

ADM2336 Chapter 5

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Craig Kuziemsky

Chapter 5 Stress STRESS Stress is defined as a psychological response to demands when there is something at stake for the individual, and when coping with these demands would tax or exceed the individual’s capacity or resources.  Stressors are the demands that cause the stress response.  Strains are the negative consequences that occur when demands tax or exceed a person’s capacity or resources.  The definition of stress illustrates that it depends on both the nature of the demand and the person who confronts it. WHY ARE SOME EMPLOYEES MORE “STRESSED” THAN OTHERS?  Transactional theory of stress explains how stressors are perceived and appraised, as well as how people respond to those perceptions and appraisals.  Primary appraisal occurs as people evaluate the significance and the meaning of the stressors they are confronting.  Job demands that tend not to be appraised as stressful are called benign job demands. TYPES OF STRESSORS  Hindrance stressors are stressors that tend to be appraised as thwarting progress toward growth and achievement. o Tend to trigger negative emotions such as anger and anxiety.  Challenge stressors are stressors that tend to be appraised as opportunities for growth and achievement. o Tend to trigger positive emotions such as pride and enthusiasm. WORK HINDRANCE STRESSORS  Role conflict refers to conflicting expectations that other people may have on us.  Role ambiguity refers to the lack of information regarding what needs to be done in a role, as well as unpredictable regarding the consequences of performance in that role.  Role overload occurs when the number of demanding roles a person holds is so high that a person simply cannot perform some or all of the roles very effectively.  Daily hassles reflect the relatively minor day-to-day demands that get in the way of accomplishing the things that we really want to accomplish. WORK CHALLENGE STRESSORS  Time pressure is the sense that the amount of time allotted to do a job is not quite enough.  Work complexity refers to the degree to which the requirements of the work, in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities, tax or exceed the capabilities of the person who is responsible for performing the work.  Work responsibility refers to the nature of the obligations that a person has toward others. NON-WORK HINDRANCE STRESSORS  Work-family conflict is a special form of role conflict in which the demands of a work role hinder the fulfillment of the demands in a family role.  Negative life events are events such as a divorce or death of a family member that tend to be appraised as a hindrance.  Financial uncertainty is the uncertainties with regard to the potential for loss of livelihood, savings, or the ability to pay expenses. NON-WORK CHALLENGE STRESSORS  Family time demands reflect the time that a person commits to participate in an array of family activities and responsibilities.  Personal development includes participation in activities outside of work that foster growth and learning.  Positive life events are events such as marriage, or the birth of a child that tend to be appraised as a challenge. HOW DO PEOPLE COPE WITH STRESSORS?  Secondary appraisal: when people determine how to cope with the various stressors they face. o Coping refers to the behaviours and thoughts people use to manage both the stressful demands they face and the emotions associated with those stressful demands. Coping can involve many different types of activities, and these activities can be grouped into four broad categories based on two dimensions:  Problem-focused coping: behaviours and cognitions of an individual intended to manage the stressful situation itself. o Meeting the demand, rather than avoiding it.  Emotion-focused coping: behaviours and cognitions of an individual intended to help manage emotional reactions to the stressful demands  Behavioural coping: physical activities used to deal with a stressful situation. o Working harder o Venting o Seeking assistance o Seeking support o Acquiring additional resources o Alternate activities  Cognitive coping: thoughts used to deal with a stressful situation. o Strategizing o Avoiding/ignoring o Self-motivation o NegativePositive o Changing priorities o Reappraising  The choice of a coping strategy has important implications for how effective people can meet or adapt to the different stressors they face  Factors that influence a choice of coping strategy: o Set
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