Chapter 6 Motivation
Motivation: a set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity, and
persistence of employee’s work effort.
Engagement: a widely used term in contemporary workplaces that has
different meanings depending on the context; most often refers to
motivation, but it can refer to affective commitment.
WHY ARE SOME EMPLOYEES MORE MOTIVATED THAN OTHERS?
Expectancy theory: a theory that describes the cognitive process employees
go through to make choices among different voluntary responses.
The theory suggests that our choices depend on three specific beliefs:
Expectancy: the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in
successful performance on some task.
o Self-efficacy: the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to
perform the behaviours required on some task.
o Employees who feel more efficacious choose to exert high levels of effort.
Instrumentality: the belief that successful performance will result in some
outcome or outcomes.
Valence: the anticipated value of the outcome(s) associated with successful
o Needs: groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical
psychological or physiological consequences.
o Outcomes are deemed more attractive when they help satisfy needs.
o Outcomes deemed particularly attractive are likely to satisfy a
number of different needs.
Extrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to
some contingency that depends on task performance.
Bonuses, promotions, and praise
Intrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to
the sense that task performance serves as its own reward.
Enjoyment, interestingness, and personal expression
The attractiveness of many rewards varies across cultures.
Employees underestimate how powerful a motivator pay is to them.
o Meaning of money: the idea that money can have a symbolic value e.g.,
achievement, respect, freedom) in addition to economic value. Motivational force: [ ] ∑[( ) ]
o Motivation increases as successful performance is linked to more and
more attractive outcomes
o If any one of the three beliefs is zero, the whole equation is zero.
GOAL SETTING THEORY
Goal setting theory: a theory that views goals as the primary drivers of the
intensity and persistence of efforts.
o Goals are defined as the objective or aim of an action and typically
refer to attaining a specific standard of proficiency.
o The theory argues that assigning employees specific and difficult goals
will result in higher levels of performance.
Specific and difficult goals: goals that stretch an employee to
perform at his or her maximum level while still staying within
the boundaries of his or her ability.
Gives people a number to shoot for.
o The effect an assigned goal on an individual’s effort level will only
happen if the assigned goal is internalized as a personal goal.
Self-set goals: the internalized goals that people use to monitor
their own progress.
As self set goals become more difficult, the intensity of effort has
to increase to reach desired performance level.
Three variables (moderators) that specify when assigned goals will have
stronger or weaker effects on task performance:
o Feedback: in goal setting theory, it refers to progress updates on work goals.
o Task complexity: the degree to which the information and actions
needed to complete the task are complicated.
o Goal commitment: the degree to which a person is determined to
reach the goal.
SMART goals: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Result-Based, Time-Sensitive.
Equity theory: a theory that suggests that employees create a mental ledger of
the outcomes they receive for their job inputs, relative to some comparison other.
o Outcomes depend on what you find valuable.
Equity theory argues that you compare your ratio of outcomes and inputs to
the ratio of some comparison other.