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Chapter 6

ADM2336 Chapter 6

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University of Ottawa
Craig Kuziemsky

Chapter 6 Motivation MOTIVATION Motivation: a set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity, and persistence of employee’s work effort.  Engagement: a widely used term in contemporary workplaces that has different meanings depending on the context; most often refers to motivation, but it can refer to affective commitment. WHY ARE SOME EMPLOYEES MORE MOTIVATED THAN OTHERS? EXPECTANCY THEORY  Expectancy theory: a theory that describes the cognitive process employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses. The theory suggests that our choices depend on three specific beliefs:  Expectancy: the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in successful performance on some task. o Self-efficacy: the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to perform the behaviours required on some task. o Employees who feel more efficacious choose to exert high levels of effort.  Past experiences  Verbal persuasion  Emotional cues  Instrumentality: the belief that successful performance will result in some outcome or outcomes.  Valence: the anticipated value of the outcome(s) associated with successful performance. o Needs: groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences. o Outcomes are deemed more attractive when they help satisfy needs. o Outcomes deemed particularly attractive are likely to satisfy a number of different needs.  Extrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that depends on task performance.  Bonuses, promotions, and praise  Intrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task performance serves as its own reward.  Enjoyment, interestingness, and personal expression  The attractiveness of many rewards varies across cultures.  Employees underestimate how powerful a motivator pay is to them. o Meaning of money: the idea that money can have a symbolic value e.g., achievement, respect, freedom) in addition to economic value.  Motivational force: [ ] ∑[( ) ] o Motivation increases as successful performance is linked to more and more attractive outcomes o If any one of the three beliefs is zero, the whole equation is zero. GOAL SETTING THEORY  Goal setting theory: a theory that views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of efforts. o Goals are defined as the objective or aim of an action and typically refer to attaining a specific standard of proficiency. o The theory argues that assigning employees specific and difficult goals will result in higher levels of performance.  Specific and difficult goals: goals that stretch an employee to perform at his or her maximum level while still staying within the boundaries of his or her ability.  Gives people a number to shoot for. o The effect an assigned goal on an individual’s effort level will only happen if the assigned goal is internalized as a personal goal.  Self-set goals: the internalized goals that people use to monitor their own progress.  As self set goals become more difficult, the intensity of effort has to increase to reach desired performance level.  Three variables (moderators) that specify when assigned goals will have stronger or weaker effects on task performance: o Feedback: in goal setting theory, it refers to progress updates on work goals. o Task complexity: the degree to which the information and actions needed to complete the task are complicated. o Goal commitment: the degree to which a person is determined to reach the goal.  SMART goals: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Result-Based, Time-Sensitive. EQUITY THEORY  Equity theory: a theory that suggests that employees create a mental ledger of the outcomes they receive for their job inputs, relative to some comparison other. o Outcomes depend on what you find valuable.  Equity theory argues that you compare your ratio of outcomes and inputs to the ratio of some comparison other. o
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