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Chapter 5


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University of Ottawa

Chapter 5I Why Study MotivationMotivation is one of the most traditional topics in organizational behaviour and it has become more important in contemporary organizations as a result of the need for increased productivity to be globally competitive and the rapid changes that organizations are undergoing II What is MotivationWhen we speak about motivation we usually mean that a person works hard keeps at his or her work and directs his or her behaviour toward appropriate outcomes A Basic Characteristics of Motivation Motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal The four basic characteristics of motivation are effort persistence direction and goals Effort This refers to the strength of a persons workrelated behaviour Persistence This refers to the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks Direction This refers to the quality of a persons work related behaviour Goals This refers to the ends towards which employees direct their effort B Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Experts in organizational behaviour distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task and it is usually selfapplied Extrinsic motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and it is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated The extrinsicintrinsic motivation relationship suggests that if intrinsic outcomes and extrinsic outcomes are both highly attractive they should contribute to motivation in an additive fashion In general research has shown that both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards are necessary to enhance motivation in actual work settings C Motivation and Performance Performance can be defined as the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization Although there is a positive relationship between motivation and performance the relationship is not onetoone because other factors such as personality general cognitive ability emotional intelligence task understanding and chance can intervene General Cognitive Ability General cognitive ability refers to a persons basic information
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