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Chapter 1

ADM 2336 A Chapter 1 Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Ottawa

September 6 2013ADM 2336 A Chapter 1 Notes Organizational Behaviour is a field of study devoted to understanding explaining and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations Human Resource Management is a field of study that focuses on the applications of OB theories and principles in organizations An OB study might explore the relationship between learning and job performance whereas HR study might examine the best ways to structure training programs to promote employee learning Strategic management is a field of study devoted to exploring the product choices and industry characteristics that affect organizations profitability An example of strategic management study might examine the relationship between firm diversification when a firm expands into a new product segment and firm profitability Frederick Taylor is described as the father of scientific management through the classical approach Taylor studied how to optimize and make work processes more efficient through scientific means ex careful observation measurement experimentationScientific management uses scientific methods to design optimal and efficient work processes and tasks Max Weber was also an important contributor to the classical approach to management and was often associated with the term bureaucracy Bureaucracy is an organizational form that emphasizes the control and coordination of its members through a strict chain of command formal rules and procedures high specialization and centralized decision makingCharacteristics of bureaucracy includeoThe division of labour with a high level of technical specialization oA strict chain of command authority hierarchy in which every member reported to someone at a higher level in the organization oA system of formal rules and procedures that ensured consistency impartiality and impersonality throughout the organization oDecision making at the top of an organization Human Relations Movement is a field of study that recognizes that the psychological attitudes of individual workers and the social forces within work groups have important effects on work behaviour The Hawthorne Plants study was conducted to see how workers performed in different lightings The studies showed that the workers worked harder as they thought that they were being watched This study revealed the importance of group value and norms leadership motivation job satisfaction and organizational culture The Contemporary Management Approach recognizes the dependencies between the classical approach and the human relations approach Contingency approach is reflected in a number of theories and models of OB in which the consequences of situational characteristics ex financial incentives job design
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