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Chapter 6

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University of Ottawa

Chapter 6Databases and Information Management Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment Accurate information is free of errorsInformation is timely when it is available to decision makers when it is neededInformation is relevant when it is useful and appropriate for the types of work and decisions that require itFile Organization Concepts A computer system organizes data in a hierarchy that starts with bits and bytes and progresses to fields records files and databasesBitByte Field a grouping of characters into a word a group of words or a complete number such as persons name or ageRecord A group of related fields ex Std num course takenFilea group of records of the same typedatabasea group of related filesA record describes an entity is a person place thing or event about which we store and maintain informationProblems with the Traditional File Environment Data Redundancy and Inconsistency data redundancy is the presence of duplicate data in multiple data files so that the same data are stored in more than one place or location oData redundancy wastes storage resources and also leads to data inconsistency where the same attribute may have different values ProgramData Dependence Programdata dependence refers to the coupling of data storedin files and the specific programs required to update and maintain those files such that changes in programs changes to the data
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