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ANP1105 (101)
Chapter 1

ANP1105 Chapters 1 (p. 3-4) Levels of Structural Organization, and 3 (p. 81-96) Major Organelles and Structures Found Inside the Cell

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Anatomy and Physiology
Jacqueline Carnegie

(Pg. 3-4) Anatomy: studies the structure of the body Physiology: studies function of the body Histology: the study of tissues Embryology: developmental changes that occur before birth Levels of Structural Organization: 1. Chemical level: • Simplest level • Atoms from molecules which associate to form organelles 2. Cellular level: • Cells are smallest units of living things 3. Tissue level: • Found in complex organisms • Tissues are a group of similar cells that have a common function • Four basic types of tissues are; epithelium, muscle, connective tissue (CT), and nervous tissue (NT) 4. Organ level: • Organ: discrete structure composed of at least 2 tissue types (usually four) that performs a specific function • Makes extremely complex functions possible 5. Organ system level: • Organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose 6. Organismal level: • Highest level of organization • Sum of all structural levels Metabolism: includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells- regulated by hormones secreted by endocrine glands Homeostasis: ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions in a changing environment Cell theory: 1) Acell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms 2) The activity of an organism depends on both the individual and collective activities of the cell 3) The biochemical activities of cells are dictated by their shapes and forms 4) Continuity of life from one generation to another has a cellular basis (Pg. 83-96) Summarization of major organelles and structures found inside a cell Cytoplasm: • Cellular material between PM and nucleus • Consists of three major elements: cytosol, organelles, and inclusions • Cytosol: viscous, semitransparent fluid in which cytoplasmic elements are suspended • Organelles: specialized cellular compartments each carrying out a specific function, can have a membrane or not • No membrane: cytoskeleton, centrioles and ribosomes • Membranous: most organelles, membrane maintains an internal environment different than that outside the organelle and allows the organelle to interact with other organelles Mitochondria: • Powerplants of a cell: provide most of its ATP • Cluster where there isATP needed • Double membrane: outer membrane is smooth and inner membrane folds inward forming cristae • Glucose and others are broken down in the mitochondrial matrix and in the cristae.As its broken down, some energy released is captured and used to attach phosphate groups to ADP formingATP • Complex: contain their own DNA, RNA, ribosomes, and can reproduce themselves Ribosomes: • Small and composed of proteins and RNA’s (ribosomal RNA’s) • Each has two ribosomal subunits that fit together • Sites of protein synthesis • Some ribosomes float freely in the cytoplasm, and some are membrane-bound which attach to membranes forming endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic reticulum: • System of interconnected tubes and parallel membranes enclosing fluid filled cavities called cisterns • Accounts for half the cell’s membranes • Two types: rough ER and smooth ER • Rough ER: studded with ribosomes, proteins from the ribosomes flow into the cisterns. When they are complete they are enclosed in vesicles and sent to Golgi apparatus for further processing. Its ribosomes manufacture all proteins secreted from cells and integral proteins and phospholipids of the PM. • Smooth ER: tubules arranged in a looping network. Its enzymes catalyze reactions to: metabolize lipids; synthesize steroid-based hormones; absorb, synthesize and transport fats; detoxify drugs; and break down glycogen to form free glucose Golgi apparatus: • Stacked and flattened membranous sacs • Major function is to modify, concentrate and package proteins and lipids made at the rough ER and destined for export from the cell • Transport vesicles from the rough ER fuse with membranes on the cis face, receiving side, of the golgi • Inside the golgi, proteins are modified, they are then tagged for delivery and packaged in one of three types of vesicles from the trans face, the shipping side, of the golgi: (1) secretory vesicles: contain proteins, pinch off from trans face and are transported to PM which discharges its contents through exocytosis, (2) pinched off vesicles filled with lipids and transmembrane proteins destined for PM, and (3) digestive enzymes packaged into membranous lysosomes which remain in the cell Peroxisomes: • Spherical membranous sacs containing powerful enzymes (especially important are catalases and oxidases) • Oxidases use O2 to detoxify harmful substances (such as alcohol). Their most important function is to neutralize free radicals (highly reactive particles with unpaired electrons that can destroy the structure of molecules). Oxidases convert free radicals into hydrogen peroxide which catalase then converts to water • Especially numerous in the liver and kidney which are active in detoxification • Also break down and synthesize fatty acids Lysosomes: • Spherical membranous organelles containing a
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