ANP NOTES: BLOOD.
184.108.40.206: List the physical characteristics of blood and the types of formed elements found
⇒ Only fluid in the body.
⇒ Formed elements suspended in plasma:
• Erythrocytes, RBCs. (no nuclei)
• Leucocytes, WBCs. (nuclei)
• Platelets(tiny cell fragments)
⇒ Physical characteristics:
• Colour is red(O2 rich) to dark red(O2 poor)
• More dense than H20.
• pH= 7.357.45; temperature 38 degrees.
• 8% body weight.
220.127.116.11: List and briefly describe the 3 main functions associated with blood and the
Oxygen + nutrient:
⇒ Oxygen: tissues.
⇒ Nutrients: ions, molecules, etc.
⇒ Bringing urea to kidneys, CO2 to lungs.
⇒ Vehicle hormones use to get places.
Body temperature (heat):
⇒ Distribution, conservation, dissipation.
pH in body tissues:
⇒ Plasma proteins
⇒ Bicarbonate reserve.
Adequate fluid volume.
Platelets, plasma proteins, blood clotting.
Antibodies, complement, WBCs. 18.104.22.168: List the physical characteristics of plasma.
90% water + many solutes. (in a tube, less dense @ the top)
Plasma proteins: produced in liver (except gamma globulins); functional proteins
which remain in blood.
Albumin: most prevalent (60% of all plasma proteins) Tells the blood stream to
hold a certain volume of water.
Buffy coat: white blood cells. 1% of total blood volume.
Carrier of various molecules, important blood buffer; major osmotic protein.
Major Osmotic Ion: Sodium, the ion that influences how much water is in your
Blood is constantly adjusted to keep it’s composition, pH and osmolarity within
Formed Elements: erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets.
Most formed elements are short lived/disposable; replaced by bone marrow.
Leukocytes have a full membrane, therefore complete cells.
Platelets: fragments of cells.
These blood cells get old and proteins start to denature, less able to change shape
(get stuck in capillaries) and some get destroyed.
22.214.171.124: Describe the functional anatomy of an erythrocyte, the structural organization of
Bi concave discs. No nucleus.
Bags of hemoglobin. (largest concentration of protein)(transport O2)
Ex: spectrin: helps the cell bounce back to the biconcave shape, its important so
they don’t get stuck in the circulatory system.
Transports O2 from the lungs to the tissues. They don’t use O2 for their own
good, they are anaerobic. Transports 20% of CO2 back to the lungs. Specialized Characteristics That Optimize Functions:
⇒ Small size, biconcave.
⇒ Large SA to V ratio.
⇒ No mitochondria; generate ATP anaerobically.
⇒ Lower BC count for females: menstrual cycle, testosterone has a stimulatory
effect on RBCs.
⇒ Rate of blood flow inversely affected by RBCs.
⇒ Not good to climb to high, because viscosity.
⇒ Globin: CO2 being transported. 4 polypeptide chains.
⇒ Heme: Binding sit for O2. Transports 4 O2/Heme. Fe containing central
⇒ Each Fe can reversibly bind to one molecule of O2.
⇒ Hemoglobin in Erythrocytes:
• Keeps from fragmenting and being lost
• Keeps from contributing directly to osmotic pressure and blood
• OxyHB has a diff shape than deoxyHb.
126.96.36.199: Describe the process of erythropoiesis, its regulation and the dietary requirements
associated with daily production; outline the life cycle of a RBC.
Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells; occur in the bone marrow.
Immature RBCs here as mature, migrate through capillary walls to blood.
Hematopoeitic stem cell (hemocytoblast): stem cell for all formed elements. ▯
cells become committed to a particular pathway.
Erythropoeisis: Production of RBCs:
⇒ Production of ribosomes, has nucleus.
⇒ Accumulate hemoglobin.
⇒ Nucleus is ejected.
⇒ Reticulocyte: doesn’t have a complete shape, still contains ribosomes and
these will disintegrate. Regulation of Erythropoiesis:
⇒ Balance between RBC production and destruction.
⇒ Too litte: anemia.
⇒ Too many: polysythemia.
⇒ Erythropoietin: stimulates increased RBC formation.
⇒ Erythropoietin: glycoprotein produced in kidney and liver.
⇒ There is always some in the blood.
⇒ Additional is released if hypoxia due to:
1) Hemorrhage/excess RBC destruction. Ex: chemotherapy.
2) High altitude or pneumonia (reduced o2, so kidney will want more
3) Increased demand. (training)
⇒ The level of oxygen transport can measure how much o2 is being
transported, not the number of RBC.
⇒ Route of Stimulation:
• Hypoxia ▯kidneys ▯erythropoietin ▯activation of bone marrow ▯
more mature RBCs.
⇒ Renal failure patients: lack EPO.
⇒ Athletes and EPO abuse: can increase hematocrit. But increased viscosity
plus dehydration can lead to consequences.
⇒ Testosterone stimulates the rate of production of erythropoietin.
⇒ Fe and B Vitamins.
⇒ Absorption of FE is controlled by body’s storage levels.
⇒ 65% is store in HB.
⇒ Other is in liver, spleen, bone marrow.
⇒ Fe transported in blood loosely bound to transferrin.
⇒ Transferrin: will pass through in close association to the cells in the blood
stream and be used for production of RBC.
⇒ Loss of Fe: feces, urine, sweat. Fate/Destruction of Erythrocytes:
⇒ Mature RBCs become rigid and fragile with them because of the loss of
⇒ Hb begins to degenerate.
⇒ Spleen= RBC graveyard.
⇒ Fe is stored and reused.
⇒ Heme degraded into bilirubin which gets excreted in feces.
188.8.131.52: Define: anemia, polycythemia + give examples.
Anemia: tired, pale, short of breath, chilly – causes:
1) Insufficient # of RBCs.
2) Decreases in Hb content.
3) Abnormal Hb. (sickle cell)
Polycythemia: overly viscous, stoke, especially if exercising.
1) Polycythemia Vera: True. As a result of cancer of bone marrow.
2) Secondary Polycythemia: result of something else. (mountain climbing,
3) Artificial Polycythemia: blood doping.
184.108.40.206: Define platelet and summarize the main steps in platelet production.
⇒ Cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes.
⇒ Contain purple staining granules that contain clotting factors and enzymes.
⇒ Platelet formation is regulated by thrombopoietin, responsible for enough
in liver. 220.127.116.11: Define hemostasis; list the 3 key events involved in the process and desc