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Canada (161,803)
ANP1106 (77)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Anatomical Positions and Terms.doc

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Anatomy and Physiology
Jacqueline Carnegie

Chapter 1: The Orientation of the Human Body The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Position and Directional Terms -that anatomical reference point is a standard body position called the anatomical position -the body is erect with feet slightly apart -palms face forward and the thumbs point away from the body -right and left refer to those sides of the person or the cadaver being viewed, not those of the observer -directional terms allow us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another Superior -toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above -i.e.: the head is superior to the abdomen Inferior -away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below -i.e.: the navel is inferior to the chin Ventral (Anterior) -toward or at the front of the body; in front of -i.e.: the breastbone is anterior to the spine Dorsal (Posterior) -toward the back of the body; behind -i.e.: the heard is posterior to the breastbone Medial -toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of -i.e.: the heart is medial to the arm Lateral -away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of -i.e.: the arms are lateral to the chest Intermediate -between a more medial and a more lateral structure -i.e.: the collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder Proximal -closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk -i.e.: the elbow is proximal to the wrist Distal -farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk -i.e.: the knee is distal to the thigh Superficial (external) -toward or at the body surface -i.e.: the skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles Deep (internal) -away from the body surface; more internal -i.e.: the lungs are deep to the skin Regional Terms -the axial part makes up the main axis of the body and includes the head, neck, and trunk -the appendicular part consists of the appendages / limbs which are attached to the body's axis -regional terms are used to designate specific areas within these major body divisions (i.e.: cephalic, cervical, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, public, manus, pedal, etc.) Body P
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