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Chapter 7

ANP 1106 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Subclavian Artery, Sternal Angle, Sacrospinous Ligament

Anatomy and Physiology
Course Code
ANP 1106
Jackie Carnegie

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Part 1 - Chapter 7: The Skeleton
The Axial Skeleton:
Skeleton/skeletal system: 20% body mass; 206 bones; divided into axial + appendicular portions.
Axial skeleton: 80 bones segregated into 3 major regions: skull, vertebral column, and thoracic
cage; forms longitudinal body axis; supports head, neck, and trunk; protects brain, spinach cord, and
thorax organs.
Appendicular skeleton: upper/lower limb bones + pectoral/pelvic girdles; attach limbs to axial
The Skull:
Skull: most complex; formed by cranial bones (enclose/protect brain + provide attachment site for
head/neck muscles) + facial bones [a) form face framework; b) contain sense organ cavities for sight
+ taste + smell; c) provide opening=air/food passage; d) secure teeth; e) anchor facial muscle
expression]=22 bones.
Most=flat bones except mandible; united by sutures (interlocking joints); cranial bones connect to
major skull sutures.
Skull Geography:
Facial bones form anterior part of skull; cranium form rest.
Cranium: divided into vault (forms superior, lateral, & posterior aspect of skull + forehead) + a base
(inferior aspect of skull); smaller cavities: middle/internal ear cavities lateral of base + anteriorly
nasal cavity (paranasal sinuses) + orbits (house eyeballs); base brain located=cranial cavity/fossa +
enclosed by cranial vault.
Internally: 3 bony ridges divide cranial base=3 distinct fossae: anterior (highest) fossa, middle fossa,
& posterior (lowest) fossa.
85 opening= 12 pairs of cranial nerves + blood vessels + spinal cord=transmit info to/from brain.
Cranium: 8 cranial bones=paired parietal & temporal bones & unpaired frontal, occipital, sphenoid
& ethmoid bones; curve=allows self-bracing=strong but thin.
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1) Frontal Bone: dome-shaped; forehead: vertical squamous + anterior part inferiorly
ends=supraorbital martin (thickened orbit margin; under eyebrow; pierced=supraorbital foramen:
allow supraorbital artery/nerve to forehead) posteriorly form orbits superior wall (roof) & anterior
cranial fossa; glabella: smooth portion between orbits; glabella area lateral to glabella
contain=left/right frontal sinus.
2) Parietal Bones + Major Sutures: 2 large, curved, rectangular parietal bone form superior & lateral
part of skull=form bulk of cranial vault; articulate=other cranial bones; consist=4 largest suture:
1) Coronal suture: parietal bone meet frontal bone anteriorly; 2) Sagittal suture: parietal bones
meet superiorly at cranial midline; 3) lambdoid suture: parietal bones meet occipital bone
posteriorly; 4) squamous suture: parietal + temporal bone meet at lateral part of skull.
3) Occipital Bone: form post of skull + post cranial fossa walls + base; articulate=anteriorly to 2 parietal
& 2 temporal bones by lambdoid & occipitomastoid sutures & sphenoid;
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Forame magnum: located=base; inferior brain area connects brain with spinal cord; each side
contain= occipital condyles: articulate spinal column first vertebra; hypoglossal canal:
medially/superiorly hidden in occipital condyles; cranial nerve (XII) passes through.
External occipital protuberance: median protrusion/superior to foramen magnum; back of skull;
external occipital crest=secures ligamentum nuchae (sheet-like elastic ligament connecting neck
vertebrae to skull)
4) Temporal Bones: paired; lie inferiorly to parietal bone & meet at squamous sutures; form
inferolerateral part of skull & parts of cranial floor; 3 diff regions:
1. Squamous region: flattened zygomatic process to cheekbone (zygomatic bone) form zygomatic arch;
mandibular fossa (small, oval, zygomatic process surface) recieves condylar of mandible (lower
jawbone)=form movable temporomandibular joint.
2. Tympanic region: surrounds external acoustic meatus/ear canal (transmit cranial nerves VII, VIII)
3. Petrous region: internal part; houses middle/inner ear cavities; contribute=cranial base; penetrated
by foramina; mastoid process: attachment site=neck muscle.
Middle cranial fossa: anterior slope; constructed=sphenoid bone & petrous portion
Styloid process: attachment area=tongue + neck muscle; associated foramina=jugular foramen,
carotid canal, internal acoustic meatus:
Jugular foramen=occipital & petrous temporal bone junction=allow passage=internal jugular vein &
2 cranial nerves (IX, X, XI); carotid canal: anterior to jugular foramen; transmit internal carotid
artery (2; supply blood=80% cerebral hemisphere) into cranial cavity; foramen lacerum: jagged
opening between petrous temporal bone + sphenoid bone; closed by cartilage.
Stylomastoid foramen: between styloid + mastoid process=allows cranial nerve VII (facial nerve)=to
leave skull.
Homeostatic Imbalance:
Mastoid process=consist of air cavities (sinuses) called masoid air cells=separated by thin bony
plate=high risk infection area.
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