ANP 1106 Chapter Notes - Chapter all: The Motor, Hydrophile, Glycolipid

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Human Anatomy and Physiology
Topic #1 – Structural Organization of the Human Body (NOTES)
The Structural Organization
Atom – Smallest particle of an element with all of the properties of that element (electron, proton and neutrons)
Molecule – The smallest amount of a substance that can exist alone = combination of atoms (H2O, CO2,
Organelle – molecules associate in specific ways to form organelles = basic components of living cells
(Mitochondria, ER, GA)
Cells – fundamental structure and functional units of a living thing; cells vary widely in size and shape, reflecting
unique functions in the body
Tissue – Groups of similar cells that have a common function:
oEpithelium – Barrier/ protection
oMuscle – Movement
oConnective Tissue – In-between, connection
oNervous Tissue – signals
Organs – Structure composed of at least 2 tissue types that preforms a specific function for the body (liver, skin)
Organ Systems – Organs that work closely with one another to accomplish a common purpose (Cardiovascular)
1.2 Summary of Organelles and Structures found in body cells (page 83 – 95)
Nucleus – Control system of the cell contains genetic inheritance for that c ell in the form of instructions for all
possible proteins the cell can make
Cytoplasm – fills space between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
Organelles – Are a part of the cytoplasm
Plasma Membrane – Encloses the cell, separating the intracellular fluid from the extracellular fluid. Semi –
permeable (selective), which allows some substances to cross while restricting the movement of others
The Cytoplasm Consists of Three Components:
1. Cytosol – a viscous fluid in which other components are suspended; consists of water plus proteins, salts, sugars,
other solutes
2. Organelles – Structures that carry out the metabolic activities of the cell such as protein synthesis, ATP production,
3. Inclusions – Cell type dependent – storage forms of important molecules of have other functions within the cell
for example glycogen
Organelles (83 – 85)
Organelle Figure # Function
Mitochondria 3.15 Power plants of the cells provide most
ATP supply. Folds - Cristae
Ribosomes 3.16 Sites of protein synthesis. Free
Ribosomes – make soluble proteins.
Membrane bound ribosomes
synthesize proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum 3.16 Rough ER – Manufacture all proteins
secreted. Smooth ER – stores and
releases calcium ions
Golgi Apparatus 3.17 “Traffic director” for proteins. Modify,
concentrate, and package proteins,
lipids from ER
Lysosome 3.19 Digest foreign, harmful particles.
Degrade dead cells, break down
Peroxisome 3.20 Neutralize free radicals, highly
reactive chemicals with unpaired
electrons (oxidize)
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Name briefly describe the 3 types of cytoskeleton filaments:
Cytoskeleton – Network of rods running through cytosol and proteins
Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules
Strands made from spherical protein
subunits called actin
Tough, insoluble protein fibers
constructed like woven ropes
composed of tetramer (4) fibrils.
Hollow tubes of spherical protein
subunits called tubulin
The Nucleus:
Stores genes on chromosomes
Organizes genes into chromosomes to allow cell division
Transports regulatory factors & gene products via pores
Produces messenger RNA (mRNA)
Produces ribosomes
Organizes the uncoiling of DNA to replicate and decode genes – this process is highly regulated!!
DNA repair
Remember: Each nucleus contains a complete set of genes but a given cell type uses just a subset of that information – so
that needs to be regulated . . .
What is Chromatin?
Chromatin is defined as DNA + associated proteins (histones & nonhistones).
These proteins are critical to package the DNA into the nucleus in such a way that specific genes can be found
and made available to direct protein synthesis and so that the DNA strands do not become tangled or broken.
From Nucleus to Cytoplasm:
mRNA – to bring instructions for protein synthesis out to the ribosomes
Ribosomal subunits – ribosomes are made in the nucleus but work in the cytoplasm
Interestingly, nuclear pores do not allow assembled ribosomes back into the nucleus
From Cytoplasm to Nucleus:
Proteins for the construction of ribosomes: Ribosomes are composed of various ribosomal RNAs and proteins.
The RNAs are made in the nucleus but proteins are made in the cytoplasm
Other regulatory and structural nuclear proteins: e.g. histones that are involved in packaging DNA within the
Nucleus is Site of Ribosome Synthesis:
The nucleolus is an area rich in DNA, newly transcribed ribosomal RNAs (runs) and ribosomal proteins. The
nucleolus is not a membrane-bound region of the nucleus; rather it forms as those areas of DNA that contain genes
coding for rRNAs (nucleolar organizers) cluster together and become active in rRNA synthesis. This will
ultimately lead to the accumulation of ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell – tiny factories that are capable of
protein synthesis.
1.3 Describe the different tissues of the human body
Individual body cells specialized; division of labour
At organ level, cooperation for organ to work as a whole
TISSUE: groups of structurally similar cells that perform common/related function
4 primary tissue types:
1) Epithelial: covering usually all 4 to
2) Connective: support make up
3) Muscle: movement organ like a
4) Nervous: control (regulation) kidney, heart
Histology: study of tissues & their cellular organization
Epithelial Tissue
Sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
Creates boundaries
1) Covering and lining epithelium
2) Glandular epithelium
Functions of various epithelia:
1) Protection (mechanical, chemical, infectious) – skin,
2) Absorption - GI tract,
3) Filtration - kidney,
4) Excretion - kidney,
5) Secretion - glands,
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2. Specialized contacts: tight junctions & desmosomes (strength),
which is difficult for particles to pass through with the need of
3. Polarity: apical and basal surfaces; apical surface often
specialized such as having microfilaments or Cilia
4. Basal lamina: noncellular, underlying supportive sheet of
primarily glycoproteins – Attach to basement membrane,
attachment and half desmosomes attachment sites, cells
migrate along basal lamina, barrier from cell and what is beneath membrane
5. Supported by connective tissue: basement membrane = basal lamina + underlying reticular CT
*An important feature of cancerous epithelial cells is failure to respect the boundary imposed by the basement
6. Innervated but avascular: There are nerves that stimulate them but do not have blood supply (not nourished)
7. Regeneration: high regenerative capacity – damaged cells gets replaced (damages from digestive enzymes or stomach
Epithelial cells
Squamous simple epithelia
Cuboidal stratified epithelia
Layers:Cell Shape:
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