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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - The Cell.docx

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University of Ottawa

Chapter 2The Cell21 Basic Features of Cell Structure and Function1 Plasma Membrane with lipids and proteins2 Hereditary InformationDNA or RNA3 Metabolic Activities 4 Homeostasisselfregulate and respond to environmental changes 5 ReproductionselfreplicatingSizes of cellsLargest single cell an egg especially an ostrich egg 13cmProkaryotes 15 mEukaryotes 1030 mThe human eye cannot see anything smaller than 01 mm 27Figure 23 27Microscopytechnique to produce images of objects otherwise too small for the human eyeWhy are cells so small 27Cells are small to optimize surface to volume ratio SAV to enhance1Exchange surfaces nutrients entering in wastes exiting etc An increase in the surface available for exchange raises the amount of exchangetaking place simultaneously2Diffusion is more effective over a shorter distance Diffusion rates are very slow For example from class oxygen diffuses at a rate of 78 daysm3Concentrations of substrate for metabolic processesA certain concentration of substrate is required for a process to take place If the volume is smaller the cell does not have to dispense as much energy creating a lot of substrateComponents of the CellPlasma Membrane 28hydrophobic phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteinssemipermeable to selective watersoluble substancesprotein channels and transport proteins for ease of moving specific substances across the cell membraneCytoplasm 29CytosolOrganellesCytoskeletonSynthesis of molecules and metabolism occurs in the cytoplasmCytoplasm contains a lot of enzymesalso conducts reactions to respond to cell signalling Cytosol 29Aqueous solution of organic molecules and salts in the cell22 Prokaryotic Cell In prokaryotes the single circular DNA is found in the nucleoid region of the cytoplasmCell WallGlycocalyxThe cell wall provides rigidity to prokaryotic cells and with the capsule protects the cell from physical damages In many prokaryotes the wall is coat with an external layer of
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