Chapter 7: Leadership and Management
• Describe leadership from trait, style, transformational, discursive, and
• Distinguish between leadership and management
• Clarify a personal “theory” of leadership
• Understand leadership styles, strategic objectives, and tactics
• Assess leadership strategies and tactics
• Practice analysis capabilities and skills using cases, transcripts of meetings,
and group activities
• Relate leadership to organizational excellence
• Understand the need for leadership from all organizational members
• Describe principled and ethical leadership
Situational Approaches; Paul Ersey & Kenneth Blanchard (1977)
• Effectiveness of a particular leader was related to the leader’s selection of
behavior appropriate to the maturity level of the follower group. Maturity
was based on achievement, motivation, ability, education, experience, and
the willingness to participate responsibly in goal-oriented activities
Transformational Approach; Hackman & Johnson (2009)
• “The transactional leader is most concerned with the satisfaction of
physiological, safety, and belonging needs. To meet these needs, a
transactional leader exchanges rewards or privileges for desirable
o Transformational leaders are creative, interactive, visionary,
empowering, and passionate
Fundamental of Super-Leadership • Establishing a vision
• Defining goals for the leader and for the followers
• Reinforcing individuals for good performance
• Using constructive contingent reprimands
• Managing and facilitating change
• Enhancing the self-efficacy of followers
• Using models to teach desired and appropriate behaviors
Leadership Vs. Management; Bennis and Nanus (1985)
• Distinction between leadership and formal authority
o The vision leaders provide is the clearest of all distinctions between
leaders and managers
o “Great leaders often inspire their followers to high levels of
achievement by showing them how their work contributes to
worthwhile ends. It is an emotional appeal to some of the most
fundamental human needs.”
o Confronting Ethics and Failures
o Changing Organizational Forms
o Global and Multicultural Changes
o Chaos, Flux and Speed
o Inclusive-Participation Processes
o Building Trust
Determinants of Leadership Effectiveness
• Communication Competencies
o Knowledge, sensitivity, skills, and values must all be understood and
developed for both individuals and entire organizations to be effective
in our emerging information era
• Predispositions for Leadership Communication
o The knowledge, sensitivity, skills, and values we bring to particular
• Strategic Communication Objectives for Leadership
o The general game plans leaders employ for conducting
communication based on personal preferences or predispositions and
on assessments of the probable outcomes within particular contexts
• Communication Tactics for Leadership
2 o Communication behaviors used to support authoritarian, participative,
and avoidance preferences as well as to establish vision, manage
meaning, generate trust, and communicate regard and success
Team Leader Principles
1. Avoid compromising the team’s objective with political issues.
2. Exhibit personal commitment to team goals.
3. Do not dilute the team’s efforts with too many priorities.
4. Be fair and impartial toward all team members.
5. Be willing to confront and resolve issues associated with inadequate
performance by team members.
6. Be open to new ideas and information from team members.
7. Provide help to other team members when needed and appropriate.
8. Demonstrate high standards of excellence.
9. Stand behind and support team decisions.
10.Demonstrate courage of conviction by directly confronting important issues.
11.Demonstrate leadership in ways that contribute to the team’s success.
12.Respond constructively to feedback from others.
Team Leader Behaviors for Decision Making
1. Trust team members with meaningful levels of responsibility.
2. Give team members the necessary autonomy to achieve results.
3. Present challenging opportunities that stretch the individual abilities of team
4. Recognize and reward superior performance.
5. Stand behind the team and support it
Identifying Constructive Communication Behaviors for Leadership
• Task Responsibilities
o Leaders have task, procedural, and interpersonal responsibilities
• Procedural Responsibilities
o responsible for procedures such as goal setting, agenda making,
discussion clarification, and both consensus and disagreement
• Interpersonal Responsibilities
o Leaders make significant contributions to the interpersonal dynamics
3 Key Terms
• Leadership; process for guiding individuals, groups, and entire organizations
in establishing goals and sustaining action to support goals
• Management; responsibility, specifically assigned by the organization, to
direct and evaluate the work of others
• Trait Approach; theory of leadership that assumed that leaders possessed
innate traits that made them effective; commonly referred to as the “great
• Style Approach; theories which attempt to identify a range of general