Administrative Law – a form of public law that governs the relationships between individuals and the state by
regulating the activities of organizations dealing with matters such as unemployment insurance, labor relations,
and landlord and tenant relations.
Civil law – the branch of the legal system that deals with arrangements between individuals, such as property
disputes, wills, and contracts.
Criminal Law – rules made by a society that define what behaviors are ‘crimes’, that is, what may be
determined to have happened and can be punished by the state.
Criminologist – one who studies what society deems to be criminal offences, why the society has so deemed
them, and what other approaches society might take to such behaviors.
Deviance – for sociologist deviance is not related to ‘a type of person’ but to a pattern of norm violation relative
to the society in which it occurs. There is no fixed agreement about the substance of deviance – even murder
and incest have been accepted in certain societies at certain times. When labels are applied to people instead of
to classes of behavior, people can become devalued, discredited, and excluded.
Folk devils – this term is employed most famously by Stanley Cohen in his study of the moral panic
surrounding the mods and rockers subcultures in England during the 1960’s. Cohen suggest that society creates
a gallery of social types to show its members which roles should be avoided and which should be emulated. The
groups portrayed as deviant, and of which society disapproves, occupy a constant position as folk devils: visible
reminders of what should not be.
Labeling theory – a theory of social reaction, if society does not create the criminal label, then there is no
criminal act. Crime and deviance are considered to be social constructs.
Media accounts of crime – the way in which crime is portrayed in the mass media. This includes television,
internet blog’s, radio, newspaper, and magazines.
Moral panic – when a condition, episode, person, or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to
the societal values and interests.
Moral entrepreneur – Becker defines a moral entrepreneur as an enterprising person who want to bring a
particular noncriminalized behavior under the purview of criminal behavior. Whether or not there is societal
consensus on its danger
Moral regulation – Michel Foucault’s view, in keeping with the social reaction definition of crime, is that the
social regulation of behavior is not based on consensus but is mediated by a complex system of social
institutions that reward and encourage, people, thus defining what i