CRM 1301: Reading March 5 2012h
The Positive School
Positives were more likely to be scientist mathematicians doctors and astronomers. The positiveness sub
behavior is determined by his biological, psychological, and social traits. The primary characteristics of the
positivist criminals go for a deterministic view of the world, a focus on terminal behaviors to the bone legal
issue such as rates, and the prevention of crime to the treatment or rehabilitation of offenders.
The theory of evolution, proposed by naturalist and anthropologist, form the basis for the study of human
behavior and, more specifically of criminal behavior.
In reality, positivism is a philosophical system that emphasizes the positive application of science and
knowledge production. Therefore, the positive schools and all encompassing scientific perspective. The
schools also known today as the modernist perspective.
The heritage of the school:
the application of science to problems and dirty life was central to the creations of the late 19th and early
humans are seen as responsible for their own destinies and they were fully capable of adapting their
behaviors and social institutions she created a society that would fit so those destinies. A 2nd important
ingredient in the residence positivist chronology was the concept of evolution that emerged even before the
writing of Charles Darwin.
Western societies were seen as the pinnacle of human accomplishment, and also possible. Criminals are
viewed as to the individuals who are not as fully involved is more support people.
Failing to find Europeanstyle social organization, they concluded that other societies were less involved,
more primitive,” which original human nature. The observations were then used by the other disciplines
incorporated social science theories of how societies develop and why humans behave as they do.
The perspective of the school:
positivism itself is more accurately called a philosophy that. Even as a philosophy, there are several
varieties of positive sum Abraham Kaplan identifies 2 major forms:
1. Is the product of an 18thcentury Enlightenment philosophy, with its emphasis on the importance of
reason and experience.
2. The 2nd is a 20th century version known as logical positivism, with the close association with
mathematical reasoning and formal models of thought.
Many today also sissy positivism with the various forms its statistical analysis. Many terminologies used the term positivism to mean an approach that studies human behavior through the
use international scientific method. The focus is on systematic observation and the accumulation of
evidence and objective fact the deductive framework. Positive this then may study behavior from a
biological, psychological, or sociological perspective. The point is of the perspective from which the study is
done, but the assumptions that underlie the methodology for doing the study.
Early 19th century positivist work:
pPerheps the earliest of he posivistically oriented work on the subject of crime was that of the two statcians,
Adolphe Quetelet of Belgium and Andre Guerry of France in the 1820s and 30s.
Each examine the social statistics that were available in some European countries as if they were daughter
from the physical sciences.
Quetelet mathematician, applied probability theory to these data to produce a concept of the average
person. His adherence to the idea of normal distribution [Bell curve] of the events seemed to stand in
contrast to the idea of free will. Applying a predictive model to the study of crime rates, he found variations
in crime rates by climate and season and observe the same age and sex differences we find today among
criminals. Other early work was largely that of biologists and anatomists who studied the human body in
hopes of establishing some relationship between it and human behavior.
In the early 19th century, front on just measured and studied the shape of the head in an attempt to
determine the relationship between brain and behavior. The chief practitioners of phrenology, Franz Joesph
Gall and Johann Gasper Spurzheim, believed that the characteristics of the brain are mere and bumps of
The end of followers said about documenting the relationship between these bounds of behavior especially
The Italian positivists:
Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri, Raffaele Garofalo
Lombroso often called the father of modern criminology, was a surgeon who conducted systematic
observations and measurements of soldiers, criminals, the insane, and the general population. His initial
data collection on over 54,000 subjects included not only living, but measures from cadavers as well. The
descriptive data he painstakingly collected represent abuses and experimental method in legal medicine
that was similar to criminal anthropology. Trying to account for mental and physical differences he pointed
out the criminals of multiple physical anomalies of an atavistic subhuman or primitive or degenerative
nature. These physical inferiority is characterized a biological throwback that Lombroso called the born
criminal. He also reported that criminals manifest traits of sensory impairment; a lack of moral sense,
particularly the absence of remorse; and the use of slain tattoos. Lombroso distinguished evidence of criminals: the insane criminal , the epileptic criminal, and the
occasional criminal, who for no biological reason but by the influence of circumstances surrounding was
According to Ferri, crime was caused by number of factors including physical (race, geographics
temperature and climate) , anthropological (age sex organic and psychological), and social factors such as
customs, religion, root economics, and population density.
Ferri with the support of the notion that in any given social environment, with generally fixed conditions, only
a certain amount of crime could be realized. This is called the law of criminal saturation.
Garofalo believes that the civilized people have certain basic sentiments with the values of human life and
property; absence of the sentence indicates a lack of concern for fellow humans. Finding a combination of
environmental circumstantial and organic reasons for criminal behavior, he turned such behaviors psychic
or moral anomaly, a deficiency od altruistic sensibility.
In essence, he believed that certain people are morally less developed than others. He also commented on
the religious legislative nature of definitions of crime, believing that these definitions limit the application and
Instead, he formulated the more universal notion of natural crime, but which he referred to ask that all
civilized societies would readily recognize as offensive.
20 century positivism:
the family histories of criminals were examined and criminal hereditary traits to certain ancestors Dugdale
Richard Dugdale’s study of 6 generations of the Juke family was used to ensure that criminal and antisocial
behavior is inherited.
Intelligence tests were developed by Alfred Binet and subsequently used to explain criminality to the
concept of inherited feeble mindedness or lack of intelligence.
Other hereditary factors were considered to the examination of twins, general body types, and even