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CRM1301 (35)

WEEK 1.docx

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Carolyn Gordon

WEEK 1January1214421 PM Williams Introduction to TheoryTheoryNeed them to liveGeneralizations that explain how 2 or more events are related to each other and conditions under which the relationship takes placeoExpression of generalizations depends on the form of knowledge used at the timeExperienceempirical knowledge common sense intuition science authorityProblem with day to day theory usually illogical or product of selective observations works at time or used as general thumb but fail when need to be accurateTheories can beosimple or complex depending on the number and types of relationships expressed by themoConcrete or abstract Good theoryOne that can be tested and best fits the evidence of researchLogically constructed based on evidence and supported by subsequent researchDerived from natural sciencesno difference between natural and social in determining a good theory but measurement problems in social science because variables cant be measuredoTakes a while before ability to measure and produce evidence catches up with theory so theory might appear bad because no evidence to support itoMay need to reexamine or retest a theoryQuantitative validation assessing theory based on measuring and testingQualitative validation focuses on substance of a theoryHelps us solve problem to time specific evidenceFactorsLogical soundness theory doesnt propose illogical relationships internally consistentCommon problem time order event that occurs after another assumed to have caused itability to makes sense out of conflicting positions theory can reconcile those facts is a good one and is better than having different theories to account for each factEx differential association theory makes sense out of differing crime rates among various groups of people brings together social areas and interaction in small groupsEx Labeling theory makes sense of both forms of evidencedegree to which theory sensitizes people to things they wouldnt see refers to focusing peoples attention on a newforgotten direction of inquiry
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