CRM 1300 Chapter 16: CRIM1300 Chapter 16.docx

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20 Jan 2015
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CRIM1300- Chapter 16: Policing- Dilemmas of Crime Control in a Democratic Society
- The more crime control we want, the less due process we can have
- The more due process we want, the less crime control is expected
- Emile Durkheim- societies that value freedom will have high levels of deviance…
one doesn’t occur without the other
- Dilemma of crime control in a democratic society is deciding what kind of society
we want
oIt is possible for countries to have lower crime rates
- Justice should be blind to personal differences
Development of a Modern Police Force:
- Policing goes back to ancient times
- Early US police forces were brutal and corrupt
Working Personality and Police Behaviour:
- Most police spend their time directing traffic, responding to accidents and other
mundane activities
- Policing has relatively low mortality rates in comparison to other jobs
- Police are specifically afraid for their safety in urban areas
- Jerome Skolnick (1994)
oPolice officer’s ‘working personality’
oThe work people do affects the way they view the world and their
personalities
oWork personality of police comes from the danger of their job
- George L. Kirkham (1984):
oCriticizes police behavior as a professor
oBecomes a police officer- experiences it first-hand and becomes more
understanding of the way that police are treated/ the fear they have
- Brutality: excessive, unjustified, undue use of force
- Police are authorized to use force in subduing subjects but at times cross the line
- Victims of brutality are reluctant to come forward – much of it goes unreported
- Police behavior has been measured through direct observation
- Explanation for brutality: culture and operating philosophy
- Some cities have a zero tolerance for police brutality – rates are much lower
- Racism and police brutality may have a correlation
- Disproportionate amounts of people who are killed or brutalized by police are
African American/coloured
- Community Violence Hypothesis: disproportionate numbers of felons and other
suspects who are people of colour
- Conflict Hypothesis: Police racism- police target African Americans differently
than others
- Women are rarely victims of brutality
- Police sexual violence (PSV): Rape, sexual assaults and unnecessary strip/cavity
searches by male police officers
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