Textbook Notes (363,103)
Canada (158,195)
ENV1101 (15)
Chapter 4

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University of Ottawa
Environmental Studies
Sonia Wesche

Chapter 4 Species Interactions and Community EcologyCompare and Contrast the Major Types of Species interactionsCompetition results when individuals or species vie for limited resources It can occur within or among species and it can result in coexistence or exclusion T can also lead to realized niches resource partitioning and character displacementIn prediation one species kills and consumes another It I the basis of food webs and can influence population dynamics and community compositionIn Parasitism one species derives benefit by harming another but not killingHerbivory is an exploitative interaction whereby an animal feeds on a plantIn mutualism species benefit from one another Some mutualists are symbiotic whereas other mutualists are freelivingFeeding Relationships and Energy FlowEnergy is transferred in food chains among trophic levelsLower trophic levels generally contain more energy biomass and numbers of individuals than higher trophic levelsFood webs illustrate feeding relationships and energy flow among species in a communityKeystone SpeciesKeystone species have impacts on communities that are out of proportion to their abundanceTop predators are frequently considered keystone species but other organisms may be thought of as keystones for other reasons The Process of Succession and the Debate over the Nature of CommunitiesSuccession is a stereotypical pattern in change within a community through timePrimary succession begins with an area devoid of life Secondary succession begins with an area that has been severely disturbed Impacts of Invasive Species on CommunitiesInvasive speciessuch as the zebra musclehave altered the composition structure and function of communitiesHumans are the cause of most modern species invasions but we also can respond to in
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