HIS 2129 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Darpa, Apple I, Dot-Com Bubble

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10 Aug 2016
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Chapter 11 Summary – Remote Control: The Information Revolution
“Technology & Environment in North American History” (Pages: 197-210)
by Jean-Louis Trudel
The Origins of Computing
Fever years of WWII – electronic computers
Cold War – invention of Internet
Rise in military-industrial-university complex
Computus – calculation by monks for date of Easter, so this led to people
(those performing the calculations) to be known as computers
18th century – computing stemmed from astronomy
18th century mathematicians were breaking down their problems into the
ordinary operations of arithmetic (addition, sub, division, multiplication)
Calculators were a huge improvement than relying solely on humans to do
calculations
University of Toronto made Calvin Gotlieb their chief computer
From Mechanical to Electronic Computers: Calculators
Logarithms developed by John Napier in 1614
1st calculating machines were built in 17th century
Pascal developed a calculator that could add/subtract and then Leibniz
developed one that could also multiply and divide
Thomas who built an arithmometer 1855 that could multiply two 15-digit
numbers – which eventually led to commercial calculators
Hollerith invented a census tabulator in 1884
The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company had 4 companies (1911):
oTabulating Machine Company
oInternational Time Recording Company
oBundy Manufacturing
oComputing Scale of America
The company changed its name to IBM in 1924
Mechanical Computers
Charles Babbage – analytical engine, and he developed the elements of the
architecture of programmable computers:
o1) an input device
o2) a processor or number calculator
o3) a control unit built to direct the assigned task and sequence of
calculations
o4) storage unit to hold the number in wait for processing
o5) an output device
The Road to Electronic Computers
Thomas Edison discovered that a bulb contained a filament and a metal plate
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