# HIS 2129 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Darpa, Apple I, Dot-Com Bubble

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Chapter 11 Summary – Remote Control: The Information Revolution

“Technology & Environment in North American History” (Pages: 197-210)

by Jean-Louis Trudel

The Origins of Computing

Fever years of WWII – electronic computers

Cold War – invention of Internet

Rise in military-industrial-university complex

Computus – calculation by monks for date of Easter, so this led to people

(those performing the calculations) to be known as computers

18th century – computing stemmed from astronomy

18th century mathematicians were breaking down their problems into the

ordinary operations of arithmetic (addition, sub, division, multiplication)

Calculators were a huge improvement than relying solely on humans to do

calculations

University of Toronto made Calvin Gotlieb their chief computer

From Mechanical to Electronic Computers: Calculators

Logarithms developed by John Napier in 1614

1st calculating machines were built in 17th century

Pascal developed a calculator that could add/subtract and then Leibniz

developed one that could also multiply and divide

Thomas who built an arithmometer 1855 that could multiply two 15-digit

numbers – which eventually led to commercial calculators

Hollerith invented a census tabulator in 1884

The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company had 4 companies (1911):

oTabulating Machine Company

oInternational Time Recording Company

oBundy Manufacturing

oComputing Scale of America

The company changed its name to IBM in 1924

Mechanical Computers

Charles Babbage – analytical engine, and he developed the elements of the

architecture of programmable computers:

o1) an input device

o2) a processor or number calculator

o3) a control unit built to direct the assigned task and sequence of

calculations

o4) storage unit to hold the number in wait for processing

o5) an output device

The Road to Electronic Computers

Thomas Edison discovered that a bulb contained a filament and a metal plate

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