HIS 2129 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Scientific American, Time And Motion Study, Frank Bunker Gilbreth Sr.

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10 Aug 2016
Chapter 7 Summary – Mass Production
“Technology & Environment in North American History” (Pages: 127-)
by Jean-Louis Trudel
New Markets
Delocalization of consumption – export of beef/cereal, farming mechanized
1891 Daniel Massey & Alanson Harris merged to create Massey-Harris
company (horse-drawn & gas engines)
Horses on farms peaked in WWI, higher than tractors/trucks, only in 1950s
that tractors became more numerous than horses
1960s cotton and tobacco still needed manual labor
1869 – 53% of US production was agricultural & 33% industrial
1899 – 50% from industrial and only 30% from agriculture
Consequences of doubling acreage & harvests:
oLess farmers but they had more business as their products were in
higher demand in cities and there wasn’t as much competition
oFarms grew due to machinery
Urbanization over 50% between 1910 and 1920
% Tenant farmers rose from 16.3% to 35.2% between 1880-1900 in Kansas
Many cities banned their citizens from keeping animals (hens, cows, pigs) for
food in the 19th century
Sewers built to keep cities clean and reduce spreading of diseases
Aqueducts built for clean drinking water & fight fires
Civil engineers appeared around this time working with the government
Mass Consumption and Enmeshment
17th-18th century needs were met with local products
Adam Smith says everyone’s self interest combines to make a society guided
by an invisible hand
Fraternity “Brotherhood” signifies the trust we must place in each other
19th century technical systems (ex. canals only needed a few work people)
Telegraph communication was a luxury and only found in offices
1893 there was 1 telephone for every 250 citizens
Electricity was becoming more popular but gas ranges/lighting were still the
most used
From Protestant Thrift to Fighting Waste
Thomas Hughes – a reverse salient
Reverse Salient was a problem to be solved for progress to continue
Bottleneck was a reverse salient but a reverse salient not always a bottleneck
Edison’s Menlo Park – research lab
Production was the main problem (consumption and invention were not)
Protestant ethic was to emphasize the virtues of thrift (penny-pinching)
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