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Chapter 5

HSS 1101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Trans Fat, Constipation, Hemoglobin


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HSS 1101
Professor
All
Chapter
5

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Chapter Five – Nutrition
Healthy Eating:
- hunger: the feeling associated with the physiological need to eat
- appetite: the desire to eat, often more psychologic than physiological
- we often eat because of appetite, not because we are hungry
- appetite can be triggered by smell, taste, tme of day, special occasions, fav foods etc
- finding the right balance between eating to maintain body functions (eating to live) and eating
to satisfy our appetite is a problem for many as overweight people are becoming more popular
- many factors influenc when we eat, what we eat, why we eat, where we eat and how much we
eat.
- social pressures, fam traditions, socal events that involve food and busy schedules influence
the quality and quantity of dietary intake
- nutrition is the science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the
elements of the foods we eat
- nutrients are the constituents of food that sustain us physiologically: water, proteins, carbs,
fats, vitamins and minerals
Monitoring Calories:
- a calorie is a unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy obtained from a particular
food.
- calories are eaten in the form of proteins, fats, and carbs  3 of the basic nutrients necessary
for life
- vitamin minerals and water do not contribute calories although they provide vital functions
- excess calorie consumption is a major factor in gaining weight
- high concentration of fats in the Canadian diet that causes obesity, particularly saturated
(largely animal fats) and trans fats (produced when polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated) –
that most likely increase risk for various chronic diseases including heart disease
Eating well with Canadas Food guide:
- main objectives were to promote healthy eating, prevent nutritional deficiencies and improve
the health of Canadians while recognizing the impact of wartime food rationing
- the name of it now is “Eating well with Canadas food guide” (2007)
- it was created to:
 promote a pattern of eating to meet nutrient needs
 promote health
 minimize the risk of chronic disease
- the new objectives of the food guide are to:
 describe a pattern of eating sufficient to meet nutrient needs
 describe a pattern of eating that reduces risk of nutrition related health problems
 describe a pattern of eating that supports the achievement and maintenance of a healthy body
weight
 support Canadians awareness and understanding of what constitutes a pattern of healthy
eating

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 describe a pattern of eating habits that reflects the diversity of foods available to Canadians
 emphasize that ealthy eating and regular physical activityare important for health
- the use of the rainbow is consistant with canadas physical activity guide and visually depicts
that we need some foods more than others
- there are age and sex specific recommendations for each of the 4 food groups
- food guide advocates variety, balance and moderation in your food intake
- having a lot of ‘colour on your plate helps to achieve variety
- it is recommended that you obtain the minimum # of servings from each food group before
eating “extras” or “others” in terms of balance
- moderation refers to total calorie consumption aswell as consumption of individual foods
The Digestive Process:
- because our bodies cannot synthesize or produce certain essential nutrients, we must get
them from the foods we eat.
- nutrients are the elements of food that physiologically sustain us, and, as mentioned, these
include water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals
- before foods can be utilized, the digestive system must break them down into smaller, more
useable forms
- the process by which foods are broken down and absorbed or excreted by the body is called
the digestive process
- your mouth preps your body for the food by increasing saliva production
- saliva contains mostly water, which aids in chewing and swallowing but it also contains
important enzymes that begin the process of food breakdown
- amylase, an enzyme, initiates digestive process for carbs
- from your mouth, food passes down your esophagus (a 23-25 cm tube) that connects the
mouth to the stomach
- a series of contractions and relaxations by the muscles lining your esophagus gently move
food to the next digestive organ, the stomach.
- here food mixes with enzymes and stomach acids.
- Hydrochloric acid works in combination with pepsin, another enzyme, to break down proteins
- the stomach secretes enough mucus to protect the stomach lining from the harsh digestive
juices
- further digestive activity takes place in the small intestine  an 8m long coiled tube containing 3
sections: duodem, jejunum, and the ileum
- each section secretes digestive enzymes that when cmbined with enzymes from the liver and
the pancreas, control breakdown of proteins, fats and carbs
- once broken down these nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream and supply body cells
with energy
- liver is the major determiner of whether the nutrients are stored, sent to cells or secreted
- solid wastes containing fibre, water and salts are dumped to the large intestine then through
the anus
Dietary reference intake vs recommended nutrient intake:
- RDA = recommended dietary allowance
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- DRI – dietary reference intake are based on the amount of water, proteins, carbs, fats,
vitamins and minerals we need to avoid dificiencies and reduce risk for chronic diseases while
attempting to avoid overconsumption
- the RDA is now a reference standard within DRI’s and represents the average nutrient intake
that meets the requirements of 97-98 percent of healthy males and females at a particular age
- AI = adequate intake  refers to the recommended average daily nutrient intake based on
observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake for a group of healthy people
Obtaining essential nutrients:
Water:
- we could survive much longer without food than water
- dehydration: abnormal depletion of body fluids can cause serious health related issues within
hours, and death after just a few days
- water is 50-60 percent of our total body weight
- water bathes cells, aides in fluid and electrolyte balance, maintains pH balance and transports
molecules and cells throughout the body
- water is the main component of blood which carries oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and is
responsible for maintaining cells in working order
- 6-8 glasses of water a day are recommended
-individuals needs vary depending on age, size, environmental temp, humididty levels, physical
activity and the effectiveness of the individuals system
- thirst is not a good indicator for your need for fluids
- if your pee is a dark yellow  body needs fluids
- pee is pale yellow  sufficiently hydrated
- intent of sports drinks is to replen electrolytes lost through perspiration
- they are also used to replen glycogen or energy stores
- milk is a liquid that not only hydrates, but also is a rich source of carbs for energy as well as a
rich source of protein  vital for muscle repair
- milk also contains the electrolytes sodium and potassium, which are involved in the bodys
hydration process and with which sports drinks are often fortified
Proteins:
- next to water proteins are the most abundant substances in the human bdy
- proteins are major components of nearly every cell and are often referred to as “building
blocks” because of their role in the development and repair of bone, muscle, skin and blood
cells
- proteins are also the key elements of the antibodies that protect us from disease, of enzymes
that control chem. Activities in the body, and of hormones that regulate bodily functions.
- proteins aid in the transport of iron, oxygen, and nutrients to the bodys cells
- Canadians consume too much protein in the form of meat and high-fat dairy, which are
associated with higher blood chlosterol levels
- excess is stored, like other extra calories, as fat
- proteins are made up of smaller molecules known as amino acids.
- amino acids are composed of chains that link together like beads on a necklace in differing
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