February 6 Srivastava.docx

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International Development and Globalization
Sonia Gulati

February 6, 2014 Srivastava “Privatization and Education for All” • Even while universal access to basic (and increasingly secondary) education is highlighted as the state’s fundamental duty, reports show that private provision is increasing • Different forms of private education have risen, like low-fee private schooling, private supplemental tutoring, publicly and privately financed vouchers, and targeted subsidies enabling private or government assisted private school choice. • EFA movement emerged from a gradual rapprochement of two seemingly incongruous paradigms; neoliberal and pro-economic globalization, both endorsed by IMF and WB in the 1980s. o EFA is conservative modernization that creatively stiches together different social tendencies and commitments providing an unscrutinised space where privatization strategies are more easily legitimised.  Thus, this movement allowed policy actors to make tactical use of the globalization discourse to justify own political agendas or even legitimize inaction. o WB considered only economic objectives in its education operations, while neglecting social or cultural education objectives.  Thus, education was explicitly valued as achieving economic development and subjected to cost-benefit analysis.  WB did this by exploiting weaknesses in education such as poor governance and weak institutions. o WB recommends that governments allow private schools to set their own tuition and other fees and abolishing restrictions and regulation limiting tuition and other fee levels, saying that such controls lead to the deterioration of quality by hampering competition.  This is a classic method of actors presenting particular options as the only logical solution by using mobilizing frames. Here, the frames are; • Scarce resources o WB actors act as if the private sector will supplement the public sector, where scarce resources may have resulted in sub-par quality. However, evidence suggests otherwise and the private sector certainly is not catering for the poorest.  This frame rests on a simplistic application of
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