February 24 Robertson.docx

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International Development and Globalization
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Sonia Gulati

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February 27, 2014 Robertson “MDGs and education” • Previous ideological differences between multilateral agencies in development have decreased and this compromise allows them to target one priority; poverty reduction. o Shift from GDP focus toward UNDPs Human Development Index  New debate about poverty took hold to make this possible; allows the right to claim that market-oriented policies aren’t inimical to the poor while the left can ring back redistribution and social justice.  Still, there is discrepancy; UN agencies speak in terms of inequality while BWI speaks of poverty—the latter frame the problem as a structural issue while the former think the problem is of individuals not well-adapted to the market. o Continued commitment to export-led development. o However, until 1990s, primary responsibility for fighting poverty rested with the developing country themselves, in their governments and citizens.  OECD’s paper set the agenda as the first attempt to put together int. development goals in the form of targets.  Contains clear specification of the risks and promises presented by globalisation and the need to meet the challenges implied by poverty and inequality at the global level.  Talks about power relations between donors and developing countries.  Reveals considerable history concealed in the emergence and specification of the MDGs. • MDGs o It is argued that the MDG is different from other approaches; although goals and targets are more political than technically determined. o They represent the confluence of a number of different streams emerging into a post 9.11 world; has stimulated fresh and radical rethinking of the purposes, strategies, funding, and delivery of aid. • International consensus on tackling poverty reduction; o MDGs are seen as a major step forward but also sometimes seen as a step sideways due to the minimal scope or a step backwards because it doesn’t cover human rights and other areas as targets. o They project different paradigms of development. o Different views of their relevance. o Set on assumptions that the trends from the 1970s and 1980s would continue until 2015, leaving out the impact of HIV/AIDS. • PRSPs o Set up by IMF and WB as a means of ensuring aid was more efficient in addressing poverty. o Made compulsive as countries required to ‘sign up’ for PRSPs in order to apply for financial aid from either organisation. o Five core principles;  Country-driven  Results-oriented  Comprehensive in recognising multinational nature of poverty  Partnership-oriented  Long-term perspective o Based on;  Comprehensive poverty diagnostics  Priorities for macro, structural, and social policies  Appropriate targets, indicators, and systems o However, t
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