February 27 Lockheed.docx

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International Development and Globalization
Sonia Gulati

February 27, 2014 Lockheed “Who are the out-of-school girls—and what can be done to get them in school?” • Although many improvements for EFA have been achieved, lagging of excluded groups, such as the rural tribes in Pakistan, lower castes in India, or the Roma in Europe. o Of 60M girls not in primary schools, 70% are from these excluded groups. • Many developing countries have gendered equity in education, where mothers who were married young decide their daughters must finish school before marrying. o Why do some countries make better progress?  Presence/absence of significant subgroups; homogenous countries have higher share of girls completing primary school, enrolling in secondary school, and have higher achievement than those girls of heterogeneous countries.  Excluded subgroups based on tribal, ethnic, linguistic, or traditional classifications such as caste. • However, this doesn’t excuse failure to educate. o Consider the Basques in Spain who are linguistically diverse but have high levels of female education. o It is derogation and discrimination that leads to exclusion. • Shunning of exclusion of a group has a spectrum from actual genocide to denying education to children of slaves—it can even be attributed to something like individual social preferences, ie. Teachers overlooking students from minority groups. o Severe exclusion has structural consequences; schools not built, curricular materials not supplied, unpaved roads, absent teachers. o Milder exclusion has more cultural consequences; it affects the behaviour of teachers and schoolmates, making teachers insensitive to excluded students’ needs. o Children in remote communities have structural
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