February 27, 2014
Lockheed “Who are the out-of-school girls—and what can be
done to get them in school?”
• Although many improvements for EFA have been achieved, lagging of excluded groups,
such as the rural tribes in Pakistan, lower castes in India, or the Roma in Europe.
o Of 60M girls not in primary schools, 70% are from these excluded groups.
• Many developing countries have gendered equity in education, where mothers who were
married young decide their daughters must finish school before marrying.
o Why do some countries make better progress?
Presence/absence of significant subgroups; homogenous countries have
higher share of girls completing primary school, enrolling in secondary
school, and have higher achievement than those girls of heterogeneous
Excluded subgroups based on tribal, ethnic, linguistic, or traditional
classifications such as caste.
• However, this doesn’t excuse failure to educate.
o Consider the Basques in Spain who are linguistically
diverse but have high levels of female education.
o It is derogation and discrimination that leads to exclusion.
• Shunning of exclusion of a group has a spectrum from actual genocide to denying
education to children of slaves—it can even be attributed to something like individual
social preferences, ie. Teachers overlooking students from minority groups.
o Severe exclusion has structural consequences; schools not built, curricular
materials not supplied, unpaved roads, absent teachers.
o Milder exclusion has more cultural consequences; it affects the behaviour of
teachers and schoolmates, making teachers insensitive to excluded students’
o Children in remote communities have structural