January 8 Schrecker.docx

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International Development and Globalization
Sonia Gulati

January 8, 2014 Schrecker “Development and Health” • Relation between health and wealth is far from linear; some countries just tend to do better in providing for the health of their population that one would expect from the averages o Ie. Mexico; life expectancy is higher despite level of per capita income o Ie. Russia and US are the opposite; Russia due to economic collapse of more than a decade and US from a poor health care system that is expensive but leaves 45M underinsured o Two explanations exist;  Access to healthcare treatment and preventive interventions like immunization • In LIC and MICs even meagre resources are not used as well as they should • However, some success stories globally such as measles immunization  Social determinants of health; • Conditions under which people live/work that affect their opportunities to lead healthy ives o Ie. Over 1B people suffer from chronically insufficient caloric intake • Social gradients/ socio-economic gradients; access to healthcare and social determinants of health account for differences in health status among but also within nations o Ie. Aboriginals in Canada have lower life expectancies, higher risk of diabetes, and twice the suicide rate o In MICs and HICs ony part of the problem can be attributed to material deprivation; ie. Physiological effects of psychosocial stress o Implausible to suggest ‘trickle down’ effect of maximizing economic growth to increase health improvements • Development in reverse; Russia o Described as the “unprecedented de-modernization of a 21 century country” o Partially due to market-oriented ‘shock therapy’ promoted by US consultants and the IMF, despite fortunes accumulated by Russia’s elite o Health system privatized and simply fell apart, as output shrank by 50% in the 1990s  Deaths from violence, communicable diseases, and non-communicable conditions o Shows the consequences for health of rapid economic decline, social disorganization, and inequality increase • Globalization, development, and health; o Globalization; a pattern of transnational economic integration animated by the ideal of creating self-regulating global markets for G&S o Argued to be good because countries that integrate to the global economy rapidly experience rapid growth and are better able to reduce poverty o The growth-wealth-health policy is called into question when high-income
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