Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
UOttawa (6,000)
NSG (40)
Chapter 5

NSG 2113 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Conjunctiva, Morphine, Costs In English Law


Department
Nursing
Course Code
NSG 2113
Professor
Jacques Barbier
Chapter
5

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Medication Administration
Scientific Knowledge Base:
To safely and accurately administer medications, the nurses need knowledge related to:
1. Pharmacology
2. Pharmacokinetics
3. Growth and development
4. Human anatomy
5. Pathophysiology
6. Psychology
7. Nutrition
8. Mathematics
Pharmacological Concepts
1. Drug names: Chemical, generic, trade
2. Classification: Effects on body system, symptoms relieved, desired effect
3. Medication forms: Solid, liquid, other oral forms, topical, parenteral, instillation into body cavities
Legislation and Standards
1. Canadian drug legislation
2. Drug standards
3. Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
4. Provincial, territorial, and local regulation of medication
5. Medication regulation and nursing practice
Pharmacokinetics
The study of how medications:
1. Enter the body
2. Are absorbed and distributed into cells, tissues, or organs
3. Alter physiological functions
Absorption
The passage of medication molecules into the blood from the site of administration
Factors that influence absorption:
1. Route of administration
2. Ability to dissolve
3. Blood flow to site of administration
4. Body surface area
5. Lipid solubility of medication
Distribution
After, distribution occurs within body to tissues, organs, and to specific sites of action & depend on:
1. Circulation
2. Membrane permeability
3. Protein binding
Metabolism
Medications are metabolized into a less potent or an inactive form
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Biotransformation occur under influence of enzymes; detoxify, degrade, remove active chemical
Most biotransformation occurs in the liver.
Excretion
Medications are excreted through:
1. Kidney
2. Liver
3. Bowel
4. Lungs
5. Exocrine glands
Types of Medication Action
Therapeutic effect: expected/predictable
Side effect: unintended secondary effect
Adverse effect: severe, negative response
Toxic effect: med accumulation in bloodstream
Idiosyncratic reaction: over- or under reaction to med
Allergic reaction: unpredictable response to med
Medication Interactions
Interactions occur when one medication modifies the action of another.
Synergistic effect occurs when combined effect of 2 meds is greater than effect of meds separately
Medication Dose Responses
Serum half-life: time for serum med concentration to be halved
Onset: time for med to produce response
Peak: time when med is most effective concentration
Trough: minimal blood serum concentration before next scheduled dose
Duration: time med takes to produce greatest result
Plateau: blood serum concentration reached/maintained
Routes of Administration
1. Oral: Sublingual, buccal
2. Parenteral: Intradermal (ID), subcutaneous (SC), intramuscular (IM), intravenous (IV)
3. Epidural
4. Intrathecal, intraosseous, intraperitoneal, intrapleural, intra-arterial
5. Topical
6. Inhalation
7. Intraocular
Systems of Medication Measurement
Requires the ability to compute medication doses accurately and correctly
1. Metric system mg
2. Solution mL
3. Household system teaspoon
Metric System
Grams (g), milligrams (mg), kilograms (kg)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Litres (L), millilitres (mL)
Household Measurements
1. Volume
A. Drops
B. Tablespoons
C. Teaspoons
D. Cups
E. Pints
F. Quarts
2. Weight
A. Ounces
B. Pounds
Clinical Calculations
Formula: Dose ordered × Amount on hand
Dose on hand
Nursing Knowledge Base
The nursing process provides a framework for medication administration.
Clinical calculations must be handled without error.
1. Conversions in and between systems
2. Dose calculations
3. Pediatric and elderly calculations
Presrier’s Role
Prescriber can be physician, nurse practitioner, or pharmacist (in some provinces).
Prescribers must document the diagnosis, condition, or need for each medication.
Orders can be written, verbal, or by telephone.
Types of Orders in Acute Care Agencies
Routine: admin until dose/med changed
PRN: when patient requires; as needed
Single (1 time): given single time for specific reason
STAT: given immediately for emergency
Now: med needed now but not STAT
Prescription: meds taken outside of hospital
Medication Administration
1. Pharaist’s role
2. Distribution system
a. Stock supply
b. Unit dose
c. Automatic dispensing unit
Nurse’s Roles
1. Knowing correct prescribed medications
2. The therapeutic and nontherapeutic effects
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version