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Chapter 6-7

PHI 1101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6-7: Begging, Fallacy, False Dilemma


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHI 1101
Professor
Laura Byrne
Chapter
6-7

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Sunday, November 20, 2016
Critical Thinking Ch.5+6
Assessing Arguments
Sound Argument: Logically strong: its premises, if true, support the conclusion. Has true
premises.
Three Criteria of a sound argument
1. There premises must be acceptable.
2. Each individual premise should be relevant to the conclusion.
3. The premises, considered collectively, must provide adequate support for the conclusion.
Fallacy: An error or weakness that detracts from the soundness of an argument.
Assessing Truth Claims
Verification: The process of determining whether or not a truth-claim is true.
If we can show a truth claim is true, it has been verified.
If we can show it is false, it has been falsified
If we can do neither, the truth of the claim remains undetermined
The method of verification depends of the type of truth claim
Types of Truth Claims
Empirical: Can, in principal, be checked using one of the five senses. (A Posteriori = after the
senses)
Can be statements about past and future
Non-Empirical: Cannot, in principal, be checked using one of the five senses. (A Priori = before
the use of the senses)
Aesthetic: Homer is the greatest poet in the history of the west.
Ethical: You should be kind to animals and children.
About the divine: God is eternal, infinite and unchanging.
Begging the Question: When its premises presuppose, directly or indirectly, the truth of the
conclusion. (If we have to accept the truth of the conclusion in order to accept the premises, the
premises have failed to do their job.) (Inference)
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