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Chapter 4

PHI 1101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Cephalus, Enthymeme


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHI 1101
Professor
Laura Byrne
Chapter
4

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Tuesday, November 15, 2016
Definitions of Justice
Thrasymachus’s Definiton of Justice
P1: The stronger are the rulers.
P2: The rulers make the laws.
P3: The rulers make the laws to their own advantage.
P4: The laws constitute what is just.
C: Justice is the advantage of the stronger.
Cephalus’ Definition of Justice
P1: Justice is telling the truth and paying your debts. (This is Cephalus’s definition.)
P2: Justice is not harmful. (Unstated premise: The argument is, therefore, an enthymeme.)
P3: Telling the truth and paying your debts is harmful. (In the case of the insane man and
his weapons.)
C1: Therefore, justice is not harmful (by P2) and justice is harmful (by P3).
(CONTRADICTION)
Conclusion 2: Therefore, the statement “Justice is telling the truth and paying your debts”
is false. (By Reductio ad Absurdum; because of the Law of Non-Contradiction)
Conclusion 3: Therefore, the statement,“It is not the case that justice is telling the truth
and paying your debts” is true. (Because of the Law of Excluded Middle)
!1
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